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Max Gerson died in 1959. He was eulogized by one of his long time patients, Albert Schweitzer.

I see in him one of the most eminent geniuses in the history of medicine. Many of his basic ideas have been adapted without having his name connected with them. Yet he has achieved more than seemed possible under adverse conditions. He leaves a legacy which commands attention and which will assure him his due place. Those whom he cured will now attest to the truth of his ideas.

I must confess that I probably never would have bought his book had I not read Albert Schweitzer’s comment. I would like to first present information from his book without declaring its title. I would like you all to discover this man in the same manner in which he was revealed to me. Evidence and information presented in his book is profound especially given its publication was in 1958.

Thomas Edison believed that, “The doctors of the future will give no medicine, but will interest his patients in the care of the human frame, in diet, and in the cause and prevention of disease.” This is the story of one such doctor. The following are excerpts of his 1958 book.

Introduction

At this time, of course, it is not possible to replace a century-long pessimism with an overwhelming optimism. We all know that everything in biology is not as precise as in mathematics or physics. I fear that it will not be possible, at least in the near future, to repair all the damage that modern agriculture and civilization have brought to our lives. I believe it is essential that people unite, in the old conservative manner, for the humanitarian purpose of producing nutrition for their families and future generations as natural and unrefined as possible.

The amount of damage done by chemical fertilizers, spraying, and insecticides which lead to a chronic poisoning of the soil can be estimated when we realize how many poisons go into the fruit and vegetables we eat, into the cattle, the eggs and butter we consume and the milk which we and our children drink.

For the future of coming generations, I think it is high time that we change our agricultural and food preservation methods. Otherwise we will have to increase our institutions for mental patients yearly, and we will see the hospitals overcrowded with degenerative diseases even more rapidly and in greater numbers than the hospitals themselves can be enlarged.

Seventy years ago, leukemia was unknown in the United States. Fifty years ago, lung cancer was so seldom observed in clinics and autopsies that every case was worthy of a publication. But today-what a change for the worse. (O quae mutatio rerum.)

The coming years will make it more and more imperative that organically grown fruit and vegetables will be, and must be, used for protection against degenerative diseases, the prevention of cancer, and more so in the treatment of cancer.

I am more than ever convinced that biochemistry and metabolic science will be victorious in healing degenerative diseases, including cancer if the whole body or the whole metabolism will be attacked and not the symptoms.

The family has to give up some of the social life and do this humanitarian work with deep devotion. The decline in our modern life is evident by this lack of devotion for the sick members of the family.
page 3, 142, 143

Scientists Term Radiation A Peril to Future of Man

A Cumulative Effect

Shock and surprise were expressed by the committee on genetics in its finding that the American public was using up about one third of the safety limit in medical and dental X-rays. Its members called on the medical profession to reduce the use of X-rays to the lowest limit consistent with medical necessity.

This committee also urged a national system of personal records whereby every American would know his total amount of exposure. The effect of radiation is cumulative, it is said, no matter how long the period over which it is experienced.

The six committees studied the radiation problem in the fields of genetics, pathology, meteorology, oceanography, and fisheries, agriculture and food supplies, and disposal and dispersal of radioactive wastes….

Pathological effects: Dr. Shields Warren, Chairman — Recommendations will be made in the future. The committee concluded in agreement with geneticists that radiation, no matter how small the dose, shortens life in some degree…

Dr. Weaver’s genetics committee recommended as a general population safety limit that exposure to radiation should be held down to 10 roentgens for the first 30 years of a person’s life. A roentgen is a unit for measuring the harmful gamma ray from medical and dental X-ray equipment, nuclear weapons explosions and from natural causes like cosmic rays and natural radium.

As a result of medical X-rays it is estimated that each person in this country receives on the average a total accumulated dose to the gonads or sex glands about three roentgens in 30 years. “Of course, some persons get none at all; others may get a good deal….” Dr. Weaver declared it was “stupid genetically” to use X-ray for the fitting of shoes. He was referring to the X-ray devices that have become common in shoe stores and into which children often stare in awe, sometimes without regard to time at the shadows of the bones of their feet.

Dr. Weaver also condemned obstetricians who make X-ray pictures of pregnant mothers to show them how “beautifully formed” is the skeleton of their baby without realizing the “hazards” of the dose of three or four roentgens that is being administered.

In addition to six long summary reports of the committees, the scientists also issued “a report to the public” in the simplest language possible. Here the layman may now read how radiation damage inevitably results from exposure, no matter how small the dose.

Radiation causes mutation or harmful changes in the genes or germ lines of the reproductive organs. Damage manifests itself in shortening of the life span, reduces the ability to produce children, and sometimes, but not often, produces deformed children.

Even if the mutations is in one gene, there is some harmful effect that mutation will go on through every generation until the line that bears it becomes extinct.

The report explained how “every cell of a person’s body contains a great collection, passed down from the parents, the parents’ parents, and so on back, of diverse heredity units called genes.”

The layman’s report went on to explain:
“From the point of view of the total and eventual damage to the entire population, every mutation causes roughly the same amount of harm. This is because mutant genes can only disappear when the inheritance line in which they are carried dies out. In cases of severe and obvious damage this may happen in the first generation; in other cases it may require hundreds of generations.

“Thus, for the general population, and in the long run, a little radiation to a lot of people is as harmful as a lot of radiation to a few, since the total number of mutant genes can be the same in the two cases.”

But damage to future generations due to radiation will be difficult to identify. The study of genetics damage has only just begun, with a report due on genetic effects observed in the populations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Japanese cities destroyed by American atom bombs in World War II …

The following appeared in an article on radiation in the New York Times on July 21, 1957:

Safety Limit Set

As a safety limit, the National Academy of Sciences has recommended, that the average person receive not more than ten roentgens of man-made radiation to the reproductive organs from conception to the age of 30.

The roentgen is a unit of measurement of radiation dose.
The report also lends new support to the repeated warnings of atomic officials and scientists that man faces a far greater danger from medical use of radiation than he does from the radio-active fall-out from atomic testings

A similar warning came last month from Dr. Leroy E. Burney, Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service, who said that in view of the increasing sources of radiation in the nuclear age, the time had come to reassess the safety levels of radiation from medical treatment.

In recent years there has been an increasing awareness in the medical profession of the potential danger of radiation from X-ray treatments, and steps have been instituted to limit the radiation dose.

Insecticides

We have learned in recent years that spraying with modern insecticides is doing more damage to our food and to our bodies. I cannot emphasize too often that our nutrition is our external metabolism. Whoever is interested in this field may read the Hearings Before the House Select Committee to Investigate the Use of Chemicals in Food Products, House of Representatives Eighty-First Congress, Second Session. There is clearly described in the hearing of Dr. Biskind what he observed in this field and what he recommended ought to be done.

The following is a brief survey of this hearing: “The introduction for uncontrolled general use by the public of the insecticide DDT, or chlorophenothane, and the series of even more deadly substances that followed, has no previous counterpart in history. Beyond question, no other substance known to man was ever developed so rapidly and spread so indiscriminately over so large a portion of the earth in so short of time. This is the more surprising as, at the time DDT was released for public use, a large amount of data was already available to the medical literature showing that this agent was extremely toxic for many different species of animals, that it was cumulatively stored in the body fat and that it appeared in the milk. At this time a few cases of DDT poisoning in human beings had also been reported. These observations were almost completely ignored or misinterpreted.

“In the subsequent mass use of DDT and related compounds a vast amount of additional information on the toxicity of these materials, both in animals and in man, has become available. Somehow a fantastic myth of human invulnerability has grown up with reference to the use of these substances. Because their effects are cumulative and may be insidious and because they resemble those of so many other conditions, physicians for the most part are unaware of the danger. Elsewhere, the evidence has been treated with disbelief, ignored, misinterpreted, distorted, suppressed or subjected to some of the fanciest double talk ever perpetrated.

“Early last year I published a series of observations on DDT poisoning in man. Since shortly after the last war a large number of cases had been observed by physicians all over the country in which a group of symptoms occurred, the most prominent feature of which was gastroenteritis, persistently recurrent nervous symptoms, and extreme muscular weakness.

- Dr. Gerson then goes on to site the case studies in great detail.
pages 163 -164

The Significance of the Content of the Soil to Human Disease

The familiar expression “mother earth” is justified. When we take from and rob the earth we disturb the natural equilibrium and harmony, producing sickness of the soil, sickness of the plants and fruits (the common nutrition), and finally sickness of both animals and human beings.

As a physician who has spent much of his life investigating the nutritional aspects of disease, I have often had occasion to observe a definitive connection between dietary deficiencies and a sick or poor quality soil.

The relationship between soil and plants on the one hand and animal and human nutrition on the other is to me a fascinating subject. This relationship is a natural cycle in which one may distinguish two great parts:

I. The first part, which may be called “external metabolism,” is comprised of the following:
(a) Plants and their fruits.
(b) Composition of the soil in which they grow–thus being the real basis of all nutrition.
(c) Transportation, storage, and preparation of these food stuffs.

II. The second part, known as “internal metabolism” consists of all the biochemical transformations that take place when such foodstuffs enter the animal body and support the nutrition and growth of its cells and tissues.

When foodstuffs are ingested, their metabolism is influenced directly by the biochemical changes of the individual body and indirectly by the condition of the soil from which they came. The type of metabolic change thus directly affects nutrition and growth of body tissues. There is an external and internal metabolism upon which all life depends; both are closely and inextricably connected with each other; furthermore, the reserves of both are not inexhaustible. There are, of course, some exceptions, about five to ten percent of the population who have an extraordinarily well-functioning reabsorption and good storage capacity apparatus.

This is to emphasize the great importance of metabolism to human health, i.e., the soil as the basis of life which is generally neglected to a great extent.

There are then numerous soil studies illustrating relationships between soil health and plant and animal health.

We must conclude from these observations that unless the soil is cared for properly, the depleted soil with its abnormal external metabolism will bring about more and more abnormalities of our internal metabolism, resulting in serious degenerative diseases in animals and human beings. The soil needs activity–the natural cycle of growth; it needs rest; it needs protection from erosion; and finally, it needs less and less artificial fertilizer, but more and more of the use of organic waste material in the correct way, to maintain the soil’s productivity and life. Food produced in that way–we have to eat as living substances, partly fresh and partly freshly prepared, for life begets life. Organic gardening food seems to be the answer to the cancer problem.

page 175-176, 185

Paracelsus’ Dietary Regime

The body needs nutrition through which it is bound to nature. However, that which we have to give to the body as nutrition also contains toxins and damaging substances…

The human being has to acquire knowledge of what to eat and drink, and what he has to weave and wear, because nature gave him the instinct of self-preservation. For the things that one does for the prolongation of one’s life are ordained by Great Nature. If someone eats what is useful for his health and avoids other things that may shorten his life then he is a man of wisdom and self-control. All that we do should serve to prolong our life….
page 49

In themselves, the statements of Paracelsus about diet are not uniform but one can notice everywhere in them the thought that combines them; their chemical effect. Everywhere in his writings it can be perceived how he would like to dissect everything into the finest particles (atoms) and find an interpretation; it seems as if he would like a penetrating power to enable him to look into things microscopically. The layman only sees the surface; the physician must be able to visualize the inside and the hidden facts which combine to form the whole, regardless of whether it is a piece of wood or bone. Marvelous are his ideas about the chemical reactions and his passionate love for all chemical occurrences which he applied to the reactions of the body long before his time. Paracelsus seeks to develop everything from its origin. In that he always observes three things: the heaven, the earth, and the microcosm; it is similar with healing. Man can only be comprehended through a microcosm; not through himself alone. Only knowledge about this harmony perfects the physician.

This short condensation does not take a critical stand in the historical sense towards the statements of Paracelsus as measured against the knowledge of his time. It merely seeks to show how stimulating his writings are and the wealth of ideas which shines through everywhere, how intense his urge to find causal connections in accordance with the eternal laws in nature outside of the body and the same laws ruling inside the microcosm.
page 53

The Concept of Totality-Decisive in Cancer and Other Degenerative Diseases.

Cancer is a chronic, degenerative disease, where almost all essential organs are involved in the more advanced cases: The entire metabolism with the intestinal tract and its adnexa, the liver and pancreas, the circulatory apparatus (the cellular exchange supporter), the kidneys and bile system (as main elimination organs), the reticulo-endothelial and lymphatic system (as defense apparatus), the central nervous system and especially the visceral nervous system for most metabolic and motoric purposes.

Dr. Nicholas was probably one of the first in our time who recognized the “concept of totality” as applied to disease. He combined the following clinical appearances: Emotional, nutritional, poisons, infections, accidents and inheritance as underlying causes for diseases: “No wonder we are all sick….and science is no longer science when it attempts to violate God’s natural law.”

Some cancer biologists are of the opinion that “cancer is a phenomenon co-existent with the living processes,” “that the cancer cell is not something living exclusively from the body,” and that the cancer cell is not a special “system isolated from the living organism.” They are united with and part of the whole body.

It has been emphasized before that cancer develops in a body which more or less has lost the normal functions of the metabolism as a consequence of a chronic daily poisoning accumulated especially in the liver.” It is important to realize that in our body all the most innermost processes work together, depend on each other, and will be deranged with each other in diseases. That is the reason why all of them together have to be attacked for healing purposes at the base and in combination. My clinical experiences revealed that this is the surest way to success of a therapy. Most parts of the general metabolism can be found concentrated in the liver. The biological function of the liver itself, however, depends on the proper activity and correct cooperation of many other essential organs….

Medical science has eliminated the totality of the natural biological rules in the human body, mostly by dividing research and practice into many specialties. Doing intensive, masterly specialized work, it was forgotten that every part is still only a piece of the entire body.

In all textbooks, we find that single biological processes have been studied and overestimated statements made about them. The symptoms of a disease have become the main problem for research, clinical work and therapy. The old methods sought to combine all functional parts in a body into a biological entity, have been pushed aside almost involuntarily, in the clinic, and especially in institutions of physiology and pathology. Finally, that idea became very remote in our thinking and therapeutical work. The opinion of the best cancer specialists is, as Jessie Greenstein stated, “Emphasis must be laid on a direct study on the side of malignancy itself,” despite the fact that his book is an excellent collection of physiological changes in the other organs, especially the liver. In my opinion, the application of the concept of totality can help us find the true cause of cancer; it could be best worked out in practical examples, not in animal experiments where every little symptom is observed singly (by itself).

In the nutritional field, observations for centuries have shown that people who live according to natural methods in which plants, animals and human beings are only fragments of the eternal cycle of Nature do not get cancer. On the contrary, people who accept methods of modern nutrition on an increasing scale become involved in degenerative diseases, including cancer, in a relatively short time.

In later medical history, the best known cancer-free people were the Hunzas, who live on the slopes of the Himalaya mountains and who use only food grown in their own country and fertilized with natural manure. Imported food is forbidden. Very similar is the story of the Ethiopians who also have natural agriculture and living habits which seems to prove that this type of agriculture keeps people free of cancer and most degenerative diseases.

The damage that modern agriculture brings into our lives begins with the soil, where artificial fertilization leads to the displacement of mineral contents and changes in the flora of microbes combined with the exodus of the earthworms. Consequently, frequent erosion of arable land takes place. These changes bring about, at the beginning, an irritation of the plants; later they cause their degeneration. Spraying with poisonous substances (insecticides) increases the poisons in the soil, and these poisons are transferred to plants and fruits.

We must conclude from these and many other observations that the soil and all that grows in it is not something distant from us but must be regarded as our external metabolism, which produces the basic substances for our internal metabolism. Therefore, the soil must be cared for properly and must not be depleted or poisoned; otherwise, these changes will result in serious degenerative diseases, rapidly increasing in animals and humans beings. The soil needs activity–the natural cycle in growth and in rest–and natural fertilizer, as we have to give back that which is necessary to replenish the consumed substances. This is the best protection against erosion; it also maintains the soil’s microbic flora, productivity and life. Food planted and grown in this way must be eaten partly as living substances and partly freshly prepared, for “life begets life.” Very significant are reports about Eskimos who get degenerative diseases and cancer in those parts of their country where canned food and unnatural nutrition were introduced and accepted.

Dr. Albert Schweitzer, who built a hospital in Lambarene, Central Africa, 40 years ago, reported in his letters of October, 1954, the following:

“Many natives, especially those who are living in larger communities, do not live now as the same way as formerly–they used to live almost exclusively on fruits and vegetables, bananas, casava, ignam, taro, sweet potatoes and other fruits. They now live on condensed milk, canned butter, meat-and-fish preserves and bread.” Dr. Schweitzer observed in 1954 the first operation on appendicitis on a native of this region.” …. The date of the appearance of cancer and other diseases of civilization cannot be traced in our region with the same certainty as that of appendicitis, because the microscopic examinations have only been in existence here for a few years…. It is obvious to connect the fact of increase of cancer also with increased use of salt by the natives…. Curiously enough, we did not have any cancer cases in our hospitals before.”

Dr. Salisbury reported, concerning the Navajo Indians, that he had, in 23 years, 35,000 Indian admissions in the hospital, with only 66 cases of cancer. The death rate among these Indians is one out of 1,000, while it is about one out of 500 among Indians who have accepted part of the nutrition of modern civilization.

The Bantu population of South Africa has 20 percent primary liver cancers. Their diet, of a very low standard, consists chiefly of cheap carbohydrates, maize and mealy meals. Seldom do they have fermented cow’s milk. Meat is eaten only at ceremonies. Two physicians, Dr Gilbert and Dr. Gilman, studied their nutrition habits in animal experiments and placed stress on the diet of the Bantus as a cause of cancer…..

To the great complexity of the biological functions of the body belongs also its capacity of adaptation. A healthy body can adapt itself to different types of nutrition. It reabsorbs the necessary minerals, vitamins, and enzymes as we know from experiments to determine the time for the clinical appearance of one type or another of vitamin deficiency. A sick body has lost this capacity. The deficiencies cannot be restored as long as the essential organs are poisoned. That is true in cancer also, as demonstrated by clinical observations.

Cancer, the great killer, will be prevented and can be cured if we learn to understand the eternal laws of totality in nature and in our body. Both are combined and have to be united in a effective treatment for cancer; in that way we can learn to cure cancer in a higher proportion, even in advanced cases. The limitations of the totality of functions of the whole body, however, also come into action here. The totality of functions is lost if one or another vital organ is too far destroyed. I saw, in several patients, tumors of the abdomen absorbed, and in others, hundreds of nodules and nodes on the skin and some as the base of the brain eliminated, but the patients died of cirrhosis of the liver in a period of one to three and a half years afterwards.

A Cancer Therapy: Results of Fifty Cases and The Cure of Advanced Cancer by Diet Therapy

About the Author

Dr. Max Gerson first came to the attention of the medical profession and the public in 1929, when he developed an effective treatment for tuberculosis of the skin (Lupus), which was until then considered incurable. Under the supervision and sponsorship of the internationally famous surgeon, Ferdinand Sauerbruch, this new therapy has been tested on 450 patients at the University of Munich. Of these 446 made a complete recovery.

Dr. Gerson studied medicine at several well-known German Universities including Freiburg, Breslau, and Berlin. He was associated with some of the finest hospitals and was assistant to the eminent neurologist, Ottfried Foerster. He has lectured at universities and to medical assemblies in the principal cities of Europe. After D. Gerson came to the United States twenty-two years ago, he devoted himself to the study and treatment of cancer.

In July 1946, a Senate Subcommittee under the chairmanship of Senator Claude Pepper, witnessed a demonstration of cancer patients whose health had been restored by Dr. Gerson’s therapy. This was the first time in the history of the United States Senate that a physician was so honored. This demonstration is in the Congressional Record.

Dr. Gerson has published fifty medical papers and three books.

Preface

My approach is mostly in the field of nutritional changes. Most of the details of the findings and application already have been proved by scientific research. The results obtained in the cases presented here were the result of the application and composition of the demonstrated facts. These findings have been combined in the last years with the idea that intensive and maintained detoxification of the diseased body is required for a longer period than described in previous publications. In recent years the public has been educated and alerted towards the difficult problem of malignancies and the unceasing search for a successful treatment. While this book was written for the medical profession primarily, I endeavored to write it so intelligent laymen could understand the main problems involved. Several chapters were written at different times; therefore the reader will find a number of repetitions.

The history of medicine reveals that reformers who bring new ideas into the general thinking and practice of physicians have a difficult time. Very few physicians like to change their medical approaches. The majority practice what they have learned and apply the treatments of the textbooks more or less automatically. Right from the beginning, the physician wants most of all to help the patient. He hesitates to take risks for his patients by applying a not-recognized treatment. The history of science, art and technology shows that each new idea has been fought bitterly; most of the reformers did not live to see the realization of their ideas.

This is one of the reasons why developments in culture made very slow progress all through the centuries; they were restrained forcefully.

I was in a more favorable position. Ninety to ninety-five percent of my patients were far advanced (terminal) cases without any risk to take; either all recognized treatments had failed or the patients were inoperable from the beginning. It takes some time to acquire enough experience to see progress, results or failures.

page xvi

Acknowledgments

I wish to acknowledge with deep gratitude the cooperation and encouragement received from the Foundation for Cancer Treatment, Inc., a non-profit organization formed many years ago by grateful patients for the purpose of perpetuating the treatment as described in this book. To the following directors of the Foundation, I would like to express my special thanks: Professor Dr. Albert Schweitzer, Professor Henry Schaefer-Simmern, Mr. Carl Groper, Rev. Dr. Erwin Seale, Professor Fulmer Mood, Mr. Louis J. Rosenthal and Mr. Arnold J. Oberlander.

This publication is an exemplification of the work of Max Gerson, M.D., on his treatment of cancer as disclosed to the United States Senate in public hearings held July 1, 2, and 3, 1946. It is designed as a report on his continued work in cancer treatment, and will be filed with the United States Senate when it again resumes hearings on means of curing and preventing cancer. The title page of the U.S. Senate Committee report, containing 227 pages, follows:

Cancer Research
Hearings
before a
Subcommittee of the
Committee on Foreign Relations
United States Senate
Seventy-Ninth Congress
Second Session
on
S. 1875

A bill to authorize and request the President to undertake to mobilize at some convenient place in the United States as adequate number of the World’s Outstanding Experts, and coordinate and utilize their services in a Supreme Effort to Discover Means of Curing and Preventing Cancer.

July 1, 2 and 3, 1946

Printed for the use of the Committee on Foreign Relations
United States
89471 Government Printing Office
Washington: 1946

A Cancer Therapy: Results of Fifty Cases

About the Book

The great majority of Dr. Gerson’s patients have been terminal cases, which in most instances had been treated by conventional methods or had been previously diagnosed as inoperable. With fifty years of medical research and clinical experience to guide him in the practical handling of such patients, Dr. Gerson has developed the therapy which this volume describes in detail. Here are its fundamentals, the history of its development and its practical management.

This volume offers a different approach to the problem of cancer based on the concept of totality. Emphasis is placed on the deteriorated metabolism as a whole with the liver as its central organ. Dr. Gerson believes tumors to be only symptoms of cancer since they reappear all too frequently. The real disease affects and weakens the entire body. In order to bring about the healing processes, the liver and other vital organs must be restored and the body functions reactivated to as near normal as possible.

For a more effective prevention of cancer as well as other chronic and degenerative diseases, this book presents a sensible dietary regime–a nutrition that can be followed by the average family in order to maintain health and build the best possible bodily strength for defense purposes.

The fifty case histories selected for this book have been chosen from the many hundreds of cases from Dr. Gerson’s files in the hope that they may be of interest to the members of the medical profession.

Here we find favorable results in far advanced, internal cancer cases.

After more than 25 years of cancer work I can draw the following conclusions:

1) Cancer is not a local but a general disease, caused chiefly by the poisoning of foodstuffs prepared by modern farming and food industry. Medicine must be able to adapt its therapeutic methods to the damages of the processes of our modern civilization.

2) A method is elaborated to detoxify the body, kill the tumor masses and to absorb and eliminate them. (Restoration of the healing power.)

3) A way has been found to restore the liver if not too far destroyed and repair the destruction caused by the tumor masses.

– Dr. Max Gerson

See Abstract of New York Academy of Medicine and reprint of the New York City Cancer Committee in the book, Cancer Alerts, 1957.

I highly recommend reading this fascinating book. I will end this excerpt with his list of necessary foods & forbidden foods and consumer products given to his cancer patients.

Necessary Food

This diet consists mainly of the following organic foods

Fruit
Juices of fruit, vegetables and leaves
Vegetables, salads
Special Soup
Potatoes
Oatmeal, bread, etc.

All Freshly Prepared and Saltless

Forbidden

Nicotine
Salt and all substitutes

Foods

Bottled
Canned
Refined
Salted
Smoked
Sulphured
Frozen
Preserved

Alcohol
Avocados, nuts (too much fatty acid.)
Berries (aromatic acids cause unfavorable reactions)
Fat
Flour (white)
Beverages (commercial)
Bicarbonate of soda in food, toothpaste, gargle
Candy
Cake
Chocolate
Cocoa
Coffee, also instant
Cream
Cucumbers (too much sodium)
Epsom Salts
Ice Cream
Mushrooms
Nuts
Oil
Pineapples (too many aromatic acids)
Spice (Pepper, Paprika)
Soy Beans and Soy Products
Sugar (white)
tea
drinking water (Distilled only)

Temporarily Forbidden until further notice:
Butter
Cheese
Eggs
Fish
Meat
Milk

Fluoride in toothpaste, gargle
Hair dying and Permanents

Utensils

Do not use: Pressure cookers or any aluminum pots or utensils

Use: Stainless Steel, glass, enamel, earthenware, and cast iron.

Utensils for the Preparation of Juices

Use: A separate grinder and a separate press.

Do not use: One-unit machines such as liquifiers, centrifuges, juice mixers or masters, etc.

Fluoridation of the water supply has become very common in many communities. Since fluorides are among the most powerful enzyme inhibitors and since healing requires the reactivation of enzymes, it is obvious that fluorides must be eliminated from all food and water supplies as much as possible. Fluoridated toothpastes or enzyme inhibiting toothpastes must be avoided along with all other toxic substances such as insect sprays, paint sprays..
page 399.

Task of the Saltless Diet in Cancer

The main task of the saltless diet is to eliminate the retained Na, Cl together with toxins and poisons from the tissues all over the body.

All poisons and other substances difficult to eliminate are stimulants for the sick tissues, especially liver and kidneys. That condition seems to be the reason why sodium chloride excretion increases in tuberculosis, cancer and other chronic diseases after two to three days on a saltless diet, and this condition stays at that higher level for about eight to fourteen days, corresponding to a favorable development in the course of the disease. After that is accomplished, it stays near normal level with the saltless diet.
page 165

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I have stumbled upon one factor that has been overlooked in Autism research and infant and children’s health. Pediatricians often recommend giving infants and children Tylenol and Mortin (for infants over 6 months) for pain management prior or just after they’ve received a vaccine. What public and health care professionals do not know is that there is an excipient in the infant and children Tylenol and some of the Motrin formulations that contains a chlorocarbon (or organochloride) utilized as the sweetening agent.


To access Children’s Tylenol ingredient list click here.

Sucralose or what is commonly known as Splenda is the organochloride or chlorocarbon utilized in the suspension fluids. The invention of sucralose or Splenda was documented in the New Yorker article, “The Search For Sweet,” by Burkhard Bilger – May 22, 2006.

The substance in the flask seemed to have all the makings of an excellent insecticide. It was a fine crystaline powder and its molecules were full of chlorine atoms, like DDT. ..by taking an eye-dropper full of sulfuryl chloride – a highly toxic chemical – and adding it to a sugar solution, one drop at a time. In the violent reaction that followed, a wholly new compound was born: 1′, 4,6,6′-tetrachloro-1′,4,6,6′-tetra-deoxygalactosucrose. “It isn’t of any use as an insecticide,” Hough told me recently, “That was tested.” But it has proven useful as a food. In its pure form, it is known as sucralose. When mixed with fillers and sold in bright yellow sachets, it’s known as Splenda, the best-selling artificial sweetener in America.”

Sucralose was declared safe by the Food and Drug Administration in 1998, but most of the taste researchers I talked to won’t eat it. “I look at that structure and I have an irrational fear of it,” one of them said.

To access this article view on the link below. The New Yorker does charge a small fee to access this archived issue.


The Search For Sweet by Burkhard Bilger for The New Yorker – May 22, 2006


THE LETHAL SCIENCE OF SPLENDA, A POISONOUS CHLOROCARBON by James Bowen, M.D.

James Bowen explains the impacts of Splenda (sucralose).

“Splenda/sucralose is simply chlorinated sugar; a chlorocarbon. Common chlorocarbons include carbon tetrachloride, trichlorethelene and methylene chloride, all deadly. Chlorine is nature’s Doberman attack dog, a highly excitable, ferocious atomic element employed as a biocide in bleach, disinfectants, insecticide, WWI poison gas and hydrochloric acid.

“Sucralose is a molecule of sugar chemically manipulated to surrender three hydroxyl groups (hydrogen + oxygen) and replace them with three chlorine atoms. Natural sugar is a hydrocarbon built around 12 carbon atoms. When turned into Splenda it becomes a chlorocarbon, in the family of Chlorodane, Lindane and DDT.

“It is logical to ask why table salt, which also contains chlorine, is safe while Splenda/sucralose is toxic? Because salt isn’t a chlorocarbon. When molecular chemistry binds sodium to chlorine to make salt carbon isn’t included. Sucralose and salt are as different as oil and water.

“Unlike sodium chloride, chlorocarbons are never nutritionally compatible with our metabolic processes and are wholly incompatible with normal human metabolic functioning. When chlorine is chemically reacted into carbon-structured organic compounds to make chlorocarbons, the carbon and chlorine atoms bind to each other by mutually sharing electrons in their outer shells. This arrangement adversely affects human metabolism because our mitochondrial and cellular enzyme systems are designed to completely utilize organic molecules containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and other compatible nutritional elements.

“By this process chlorocarbons such as sucralose deliver chlorine directly into our cells through normal metabolization. This makes them effective insecticides and preservatives. Preservatives must kill anything alive to prevent bacterial decomposition.”

Dr. Bowen believes ingested chlorocarbon damage continues with the formation of other toxins: “Any chlorocarbons not directly excreted from the body intact can cause immense damage to the processes of human metabolism and, eventually, our internal organs. The liver is a detoxification organ which deals with ingested poisons. Chlorocarbons damage the hepatocytes, the liver’s metabolic cells, and destroy them.

In test animals Splenda produced swollen livers, as do all chlorocarbon poisons, and also calcified the kidneys of test animals in toxicity studies. The brain and nervous system are highly subject to metabolic toxicities and solvency damages by these chemicals. Their high solvency attacks the human nervous system and many other body systems including genetics and the immune function. Thus, chlorocarbon poisoning can cause cancer, birth defects, and immune system destruction. These are well known effects of Dioxin and PCBs which are known deadly chlorocarbons.”

Dr. Bowen continues: “Just like aspartame, which achieved marketplace approval by the Food and Drug Administration when animal studies clearly demonstrated its toxicity, sucralose also failed in clinical trials with animals. Aspartame created brain tumors in rats. Sucralose has been found to shrink thymus glands (the biological seat of immunity) and produce liver inflammation in rats and mice.

“In the coming months we can expect to see a river of media hype expounding the virtues of Splenda/sucralose. We should not be fooled again into accepting the safety of a toxic chemical on the blessing of the FDA and saturation advertising. In terms of potential long-term human toxicity we should regard sucralose with its chemical cousin DDT, the insecticide now outlawed because of its horrendous long term toxicities at even minute trace levels in human, avian, and mammalian tissues.

Researchers have known for a long time that chlorinated compounds impact liver functionality. Rachel Carson discussed chlorinated compounds in Silent Spring. She also discusses Methoxychlor, another organochlorine once used as an insecticide, and it’s toxicity when combined with other chlorinated compounds like DDT.

One of the most significant facts about the chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides is their effect on the liver. Of all the organs in the body the liver is most extraordinary. In its versatility and in the indispensable nature of its functions it has no equal. It presides over so many vital activities that even the slightest damage is fraught with serious consequences. Not only does it provide bile for the digestion of fats, but because of its location and the special circulatory pathways that converge upon it the liver receives blood directly from the digestive tract and is deeply involved in the metabolism of all the principal foodstuffs. It stores sugar in the form of glycogen and releases it as glucose in carefully measured quantities to keep the blood sugar at a normal level. It builds body proteins, including some essential elements of blood plasma concerned with blood-clotting. It maintains cholesterol at its proper level in the blood plasma, and inactivates the male and female hormones when they reach excessive levels. It is a storehouse of many vitamins, some of which in turn contribute to its own proper functioning.

Without a normally functioning liver the body would be disarmed–defenseless against the great variety of poisons that continually invade it. Some of these are normal by-products of metabolism, which the liver swiftly and efficiently makes harmless by withdrawing their nitrogen. But poisons that have no normal place in the body may also be detoxified. The “harmless” insecticides malathion and methoxychlor are less poisonous than their relatives only because a liver enzyme deals with them, altering their molecules in such a way that their capacity for harm is lessened. In similar ways the liver deals with the majority of the toxic materials to which we are exposed.

Our line of defense against invading poisons or poisons from within is now weakened and crumbling. A liver damaged by pesticides in not only incapable of protecting us from poisons, the whole range of its activities may be interfered with. Not only are the consequences far-reaching, but because of their variety and the fact that they may not immediately appear they may not be attributed to their true cause…..

The effect of a chemical of supposedly innocuous nature can be drastically changed by the action of another; one of the best examples is a close relative of DDT called methoxychlor (Actually, methoxychlor may not be as free from dangerous qualities as it is generally said to be, for recent work on experimental animals shows a direct action on the uterus and a blocking effect on some of the powerful pituitary hormones–reminding us again that these are chemicals with enormous biological effect. Other work shows that methoxychlor has a potential ability to damage the kidneys.) Because it is not stored to any great extent when given alone, we are told that methoxychlor is a safe chemical. But this is not necessarily true. If the liver has been damaged by another agent, methoxychlor is stored in the body at 100 times its normal rate, and will then imitate the effects of DDT with long-lasting effects on the nervous system. Yet the liver damage that brings this about might be so slight as to pass unnoticed. It might have been the result of any number of commonplace situations–using another insecticide, using a cleaning fluid containing carbon tetrachloride, or taking one of the so-called tranquilizing drugs, a number (but not all) of which are chlorinated hydrocarbons and possess power to damage the liver.

This raises very serious questions. Infant and children’s pharmaceutical excipients, inactives, or inerts (Take your pick on the term) need serious review. The Johnson & Johnson McNeil Fort Washington Facility is now closed. The FDA inspection review showed chronic failures in quality and consistency of the oral suspension formulations. This is the same facility where they make sucralose and utilized it in their infant and children’s Tylenol and Motrin formulations. Johnson & Johnson’s McNeil failed to understand the potential implications of utilizing a chlorocarbon (or organochloride) as a sweetener in infant and children’s pharmaceuticals. Parents give their infants and children Tylenol and Motrin products to help relieve their pain and suffering not knowing that something in that product may have serious long term health consequences. Has Splenda or sucralose ever been tested for its synergistic properties? Could sucralose impair liver functionality and cause other poisons or toxins to be absorbed at an accelerated rate? Those are the questions that need immediate answers.

The FDA inspection report is deeply disturbing in light of this information.

Observation 3
Control procedures fail to include adequacy of mixing to assure uniformity and homogeneity.

Control procedures used did not validate the manufacturing processes that caused variability in the characteristics of the drug product. For examples, the agitation speeds and time to reach [Blacked out] in the hold tank during processing of the [blacked out] super potent batches that failed APAP (end of run) assays, [blacked out] released batches, and the demonstration batch. The firm did not demonstrate the adequacy of mixing to assure uniformity and homogeneity for Infant’s Dye-Free Tylenol Suspension Drops, Formula [blacked out] using a [blacked out] batch in a [blacked out] hold tank. Agitation and tank levels with [blacked out] the amount of liquid) in a [blacked out] hold tank were evaluated with one demonstration bulk batch, lot ]blacked out] packaged as lot [blacked out] The [blacked out] batches into [blacked out] hold tanks used [blacked out] and the agitator was shut off at [blacked out] using the weight of [blacked out] for the [blacked out] batch in a [blacked out] hold tank. With the [blacked out] super potent batches, APAP concentrated at the end run when the agitator was shut off at [blacked out] in the tank).

To review the complete inspection report click on the link below to review the PDF.


Food & Drug Administration Facility Inspection Results for McNeil Consumer Healthcare, Division of McNeil-PPC, Inc.

The inspection results are also available here at this site.

http://renchemista.wordpress.com/2010/07/13/fda-facility-inspection-results-for-mcneil-ppc-fort-washington-pa-4192010-4302010-childrens-tylenol-motrin-recalls/

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President’s Cancer Panel Annual Report 2008 – 2009 Reducing Environmental Cancer Risk – What We Can Do Now

What Individuals Can Do: Recommendations regarding Children

It is vitally important to recognize that children are far more susceptible to damage from environmental carcinogens and endocrine-disrupting compounds than adults. To the extent possible, parents and childcare providers should choose foods, house and garden products, play spaces, toys medicines, and medical tests that will minimize children’s exposures to toxics. Ideally, both mothers and fathers should avoid exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and known or suspected carcinogens prior to a child’s conception and throughout pregnancy and early life, when risk of damage is greatest. Page 27 of the report

Please check out the Organizations Providing Critical Information Category. There are many organizations providing resources for parents to limit and reduce exposures to toxic chemicals.

To review the complete report click on the link below.

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Decline in Semen Quality among Fertile Men in Paris during the Past 20 Years by Jacques Auger, M.D., Ph.D., Jean Marie Kunstmann, M.D., Françoise Czyglik, M.D., and Pierre Jouannet, M.D

Jacques Auger, M.D., Ph.D embarked on this analysis because he simply didn’t believe Skakkebaek’s theory that sperm counts were falling. In the hopes to disprove the Danish study, the French team instead provided the strongest evidence of support that sperm counts were falling. There were other studies in New York , Minneapolis, and Los Angeles that contradicted this but the press coverage for these studies ignored methodological differences and failed to note a fundamental weakness in the US studies. The studies were based on men who volunteered for vasectomies — a group known from other studies to show higher than average sperm counts and to be unrepresentative of the population at large. The French findings are particularly persuasive because the data allowed the researchers to correct two important confounding variables that might call sperm count results into question: age and abstinence. A man’s sperm count generally declines as he gets older, and it drops immediately after sex, recovering within a few days.

 

Taken from Our Stolen Future

This study addresses both variables.

The New England Journal of Medicine

Volume 332:281-285 February 2, 1995 Number 5

ABSTRACT

Background Several studies have suggested a population-wide decline in the quality of semen over the past 50 years, but clear evidence of decreasing semen quality in recent decades is lacking.

Methods From 1973 through 1992 we measured the volume of seminal fluid, the sperm concentration, and the percentages of motile and morphologically normal spermatozoa in 1351 healthy fertile men. The data on the semen samples were collected at one sperm bank in Paris. The data in each calendar year were analyzed as a function of the year of donation, the age of each patient, the year of birth, and the duration of sexual abstinence before semen collection.

Results There was no change in semen volume during the study period. The mean concentration of sperm decreased by 2.1 percent per year, from 89 x106 per milliliter in 1973 to 60×106 per milliliter in 1992 (P<0.001). During the same period the percentages of motile and normal spermatozoa decreased by 0.6 percent and 0.5 percent per year, respectively (both P<0.001). After adjustment in multiple regression analyses for age and the duration of sexual abstinence, each successive calendar year of birth accounted for 2.6 percent of the yearly decline in the sperm concentration and for 0.3 percent and 0.7 percent, respectively, of the yearly declines in the percentages of motile and normal spermatozoa (all P<0.001).

Conclusions During the past 20 years, there has been a decline in the concentration and motility of sperm and in the percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa in fertile men that is independent of the age of the men.

During the past three decades, several reports have suggested that the quality of semen in normal men is declining.1,2,3,4 Recently, in a meta-analysis of 61 studies worldwide, Carlsen et al. found a trend toward decreasing sperm count and volume of seminal fluid over the past 50 years.5 The studies included in the meta-analysis were conducted in different countries at different times, and bias in the recruitment of men or in methods of semen analysis may have affected the findings.6 It is important, therefore, to assess this finding and to determine whether there has been a parallel decline in male fertility.
The Centre d’Etude et de Conservation des Oeufs et du Sperme Humains is a sperm bank created in 1973 in a university hospital. All the donors are fathers, and the mode of recruitment of men and the method of semen analysis have remained the same during the past 20 years. In an analysis of data from this bank, we found that there have been significant declines in sperm concentration, the percentage of motile sperm, and the percentage of normal sperm over the past 20 years.

Methods

Study Subjects

We analyzed the first ejaculate donated at the center between 1973 and 1992 by each of 1750 men to help infertile couples become parents. The donors were all healthy, unpaid volunteers who had previously fathered at least one child. Ninety-six percent were white, and 85 percent lived in the Paris area. One percent were farmers; 16 percent were manual workers; 40 percent were technicians, teachers, or tradesmen; 38 percent were executives; and the remaining 5 percent had other occupations. We divided the donors into three groups. One group was composed of 314 men requesting cryopreservation of their semen before vasectomy who agreed to provide additional specimens for use in artificial insemination. The second group was composed of 85 men who were brothers of infertile men who requested artificial insemination of their partners with donor semen. The third group was composed of 1351 men who were referred by unrelated infertile couples or by physicians or who appeared spontaneously.

The mean concentration of sperm, the percentage of motile spermatozoa, and the percentage of normal spermatozoa in the second group of fertile men (those whose brothers were infertile and requested artificial insemination of their partners) were significantly lower than those of the 1351 donors in the third group (Table 1). The values for mean concentration and motility were higher in the first group (the men studied before vasectomy) than in the third group (Table 1), since candidates for vasectomy were recruited for semen donation only if the motility of their sperm was relatively unaffected by freezing and thawing. As a result, the first two groups were excluded from the study. In the remaining group of 1351 men, the mean (±SD) age at the time of donation was 34±6 years (range, 19 to 59). Among these men, the mean age of those donating semen in a calendar year increased throughout the study from 32 years in 1973 to 36 years in 1992 (P<0.001) (Figure 1).

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Table 1. Characteristics of Semen Samples from 1750 Fertile Donors.

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Figure 1. Change in the Mean Age of the Men Donating Semen in a Given Calendar Year, 1973 –1992.
Linear regression analysis showed that the mean age of the donors increased significantly, from 32 years in 1973 to 36 years in 1992 (P<0.001). A total of 1351 men were studied.

Analysis of Semen Samples

All the semen samples were collected by masturbation at the laboratory after a recommended period of sexual abstinence of three to five days. Each sample was incubated at 37°C and analyzed within one hour. The volume of seminal fluid was determined by weighing, assuming that 1 g of semen is equivalent to a volume of 1 ml. The concentration of sperm per milliliter of sample was determined with a hemocytometer; the sperm were counted in the two chambers at a final magnification of 400, and the mean value was calculated.7 The total sperm count was then calculated. To determine the percentage of motile sperm, a 20-µl drop of gently mixed semen was placed on a glass slide under a coverslip. The slide was placed on the heating stage of a microscope (37°C) and observed at magnifications of 100 and 400 with phase optics. The slide was scanned, and at least 100 spermatozoa in all were counted and classified in four to six fields chosen at random. The percentage of motile spermatozoa was calculated from the ratio of the number of rapidly and slowly moving sperm (grades a and b, according to the classification system of the World Health Organization7) to the total number of sperm counted. The percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa was evaluated at a final magnification of 1000, after Shorr staining as described by David et al.8

During the 20 years of the study, 11 technicians worked in the laboratory, 4 for 1 to 4 years, 3 for 5 years, and 4 for 9 to 14 years. We determined coefficients of variation with respect to measurements of semen characteristics for the three technicians working in the laboratory at the conclusion of the study, who had been there for 14, 5, and 2 years. For each technician, coefficients of variation for sperm concentration and morphologic features were determined from triplicate analyses of three different semen samples. Coefficients of variation between technicians were determined from the first analysis of each of the three samples. For each technician, the coefficient of variation for sperm motility was determined from triplicate measurements of 4 semen samples; the coefficient of variation between technicians was determined from 15 samples.

The coefficients of variation for the three technicians with respect to the measurement of sperm concentrations were 1.3, 3.1, and 4.2 percent; the coefficient of variation between technicians was 4.6 percent. In the assessment of the morphologic features of sperm, the coefficients of variation for the three technicians were 2.0, 3.7, and 7.1 percent; the coefficient of variation between technicians was 9.9 percent. In the assessment of motility, the coefficients of variation for the three technicians were 0, 7.7, and 8.3 percent; the coefficient of variation between technicians was 7.3 percent.

Statistical Analysis

BMDP statistical software was used in all the statistical analyses.9 Sperm concentrations and total sperm counts do not have normal distributions in large groups of fertile men,2,10 and this was the case among the 1351 men studied (as determined by Wilk’s test). Age at donation and the donor’s year of birth had normal distributions, but the duration of sexual abstinence was skewed. The best transformation of the data that yielded normal distributions for each of the three variables without normal distributions was the logarithmic (base 10) transformation. The relations between each characteristic of the semen samples and the year of semen donation were studied by linear regression analysis. The variable for the year of semen donation was composite because it combined each man’s age at the time of donation with his year of birth. The relation of each semen characteristic to these independent variables (age at donation and year of birth) was tested with multiple regression analysis. The duration of sexual abstinence before the collection of semen was also included, since it affects the semen characteristics,11 had a wide range in this study, and increased significantly (P = 0.02) with the advancing age of the men.

Results

The mean volume of seminal fluid was 3.8 ml, and this value did not change during the study period. In contrast, the mean sperm concentration decreased by 2.1 percent per year (Figure 2A), from 89×106 per milliliter in 1973 to 60×106 per milliliter in 1992. During the same period, the percentages of motile and normal spermatozoa decreased by 0.6 and 0.5 percent per year, respectively (P<0.001 for both) (Figure 2B and Figure 2C).

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Figure 2. Changes in the Sperm Concentration (Panel A), the Percentage of Motile Sperm (Panel B), and the Percentage of Morphologically Normal Sperm (Panel C) in 1351 Fertile Men, 1973 –1992.
Linear regression analysis revealed a decrease of 2.1 percent per year in the mean sperm concentration, from 89×106 per milliliter in 1973 to 60×106 per milliliter in 1992. The concomitant decreases in the mean percentages of motile and normal spermatozoa were 0.6 and 0.5 percent per year, respectively.

A man’s age and the duration of his sexual abstinence before the collection of semen influence the characteristics of the semen.11,12 We therefore assessed the contribution of these two factors to the declines measured. Age, duration of abstinence, and year of birth were included as independent variables in a multiple regression analysis of the data. Greater sexual abstinence was associated with an increase in the sperm concentration and a decrease in the percentage of motile spermatozoa (Table 2); it thus contributed to the observed decline in motility. Older age contributed significantly to the decreases in the sperm concentration, the percentage of motile sperm, and the percentage of normal spermatozoa. Multiple regression analyses after adjustment for age and the duration of sexual abstinence revealed that 2.6 percent of the yearly decline in the sperm concentration and 0.3 percent and 0.7 percent of the yearly decline in the percentages of motile and normal spermatozoa, respectively, were associated with each successive calendar year of birth (all P<0.001) (Table 2).

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Table 2. Effects of Age, Year of Birth, and Duration of Sexual Abstinence before the Collection of Semen on Changes in Characteristics of Semen Samples from 1351 Fertile Men Studied by Multiple Regression Analysis.

A preliminary analysis (data not shown) indicated that to eliminate the confounding effects of the duration of sexual abstinence, a subgroup of men with a narrower age range (28 to 37 years) and comparatively similar durations of abstinence (three or four days) should be studied. In this restricted group of 382 men, age and the duration of sexual abstinence were not significantly correlated. Linear regression analysis of the data for this subgroup revealed that the mean sperm concentration decreased by 3.7 percent per year, from 101×106 per milliliter in 1973 to 50×106 per milliliter in 1992 (P<0.001), whereas the percentage of normal spermatozoa declined by 0.7 percent per year (P<0.001). After adjustment for age, the yearly decline in the sperm concentration with each successive year of birth was more pronounced in this subgroup than in the entire group (Table 3). For example, the predicted sperm concentration of men 30 years old who were born in 1945 was 102×106 per milliliter, as compared with 51×106 per milliliter for 30-year-olds born in 1962.

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Table 3. Effect of Age and Year of Birth on Changes in Characteristics of Semen Samples from 382 Fertile Men 28 to 37 Years of Age Who Were Sexually Abstinent for Three to Four Days before the Collection of Semen.

Discussion

We found a decline in the concentration and motility of sperm and in the percentage of morphologically normal sperm in fertile men studied in Paris over a 20-year period, but unlike Carlsen et al.,5 we found no decline in the volume of semen. We doubt that the decline in the quality of semen between 1973 and 1992 could be attributed to changes in personnel, techniques, or equipment. During the 20 years of the study, there were few changes in staff. All the technicians had the same training, the method of study did not change and was regularly verified, and no new equipment was introduced. In our laboratory, the coefficients of variation for each technician and between technicians in the assessment of the percentage of motile sperm were less than 10 percent in the 1970s,13 and the results were similar for the staff members working at the end of the study. Although the coefficients of variation in the assessment of semen characteristics were less than 10 percent, the evaluations by technicians may have differed with regard to characteristics assessed subjectively, particularly those pertaining to morphologic features of sperm.14 However, there was no change in the procedure used to evaluate these features over the 20-year period.

Our study confirms that both the duration of sexual abstinence before the collection of semen and the age of the donor influence the characteristics of semen.11,12,15 Thus, these factors should be considered and recorded accurately in all studies of the characteristics of semen in fertile men. In most studies of these characteristics, the subjects are asked to remain abstinent for three to five days before donating the sample. We made the same request, but only 66 percent of the men adhered to it. After the duration of abstinence was taken into account, there were still significant declines in the concentration of sperm and in the percentages of motile and normal spermatozoa with each successive year of birth. Thus, we conclude that there has been a true decline in the quality of semen during the past 20 years, since the characteristics of semen from a fertile man of a given age in 1992 were significantly poorer than those of a fertile man of the same age in 1973. This decline is unexplained. If this trend concerns not only the population of fertile men we studied but also all the men in the population, the proportion of men with fertility problems will increase.

The decline in the sperm concentration may reflect impaired spermatogenesis and may be linked to a decrease in the number of Sertoli cells.16,17 The fact that not only the concentration of sperm but also the percentage of normal spermatozoa declined indicates a qualitative impairment of spermatogenesis and perhaps of the Sertoli cells. Such modifications have been reported in experiments involving heat-induced inhibition of spermatogenesis and Sertoli-cell function.18,19 The decline in the quality of semen coincides with an increasing incidence of abnormalities of the male genital tract, including testicular cancer and cryptorchidism, in various countries.20,21 In some regions of France, the incidence of testicular cancer increased from 1975 to 1992,22 but no data are available for the Paris area. Whether there has been an increase in cryptorchidism in France, as in the United Kingdom,23 is unknown, but the incidence of postpubertal cryptorchidism may have increased.24,25

The decline in semen quality and the increasing incidence of genital abnormalities in a geographic area may have a common origin.5 Estrogens or compounds with estrogen-like activity taken by pregnant women have been suggested to affect the testicular function of male offspring adversely.16,17 Diethylstilbestrol is thought to be responsible for an increase in abnormalities of the reproductive tract and for reductions in the output and fertilizing potential of sperm of male offspring.26,27 However, the number of donors at our center who may have been exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol is probably very low. Other routes of estrogen exposure may be involved if the hypothesis of an estrogen effect is true.17

If the finding of a decline in semen quality with the advancing year of a donor’s birth suggests prenatal alterations of testicular function, it may also be related to changes in diet or lifestyle after birth or puberty. However, the significant decline in the concentration of sperm and the quality of semen during the past 20 years in the Paris area may be related to an interaction of the age of the donors and the chronologic period that in turn could implicate factors affecting all the inhabitants of an area, such as the water supply28 or environmental pollution.29


Decline in Semen Quality among Fertile Men in Paris during the Past 20 Years Complete Article

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