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Archive for the ‘Weapons’ Category

Asperger’s Children: The Origins of Autism in Nazi Vienna by Edith Sheffer

Chapter 1: Enter the Experts
“Lazar was particularly interested in “dissocial” youths who had fallen afoul with the law. He felt it important to differentiate what he called endogenous and exogenous causes—between children whose disociability stemmed from internal factors (physical or psychiatric) versus external factors (illness or milieu).In endogenous cases, Lazar boasted that his Curative Education Clinic was “the first attempt” to distinguish between “the mental and physical defects of the wayward and criminal.” Committed to physiological detail, for example, Lazar would examine the genitals of a child “right away,” and send boys whose testicles had not dropped to a surgeon….

For all his purported idealism, Lazar could be damning in his judgements. As his coworkers put it, “He was not sentimental,” and would pronounce children “morally” damaged, “degenerate,” or even “waste.”….

Chapter 5: Fatal Theories
Jekelius wrote to her parents that he had done them a service: “you and the child will be spared much suffering.” Because Paula had “Mongolian idiocy” (Down syndrome), she “would never have walked or learned to speak, and would have been a constant burden for you.”

However, the true intent of the child euthanasia program was not to make life easier for parents, but to purge the Reich of undesirable citizens. And child killers were holding very different conversations among themselves.

*(Should note that the author is not educated in endocrine disruption science nor fetal development or she would have understood the significance of an epidemic of boys born with undescended testicles and children born with Down Syndrome. Their munition technology causes have been known since the 1950s. Since IG Farben had market expansion plans it would have been in their best interest to destroy any evidence that their products caused harm.)

 

Chapter 6: Asperger and the Killing System
While Asperger effectively worked down the hall. Hamburger who supervised numerous medical experiments on children at the Children’s Hospital. One medical student exposed children and infants to extreme temperature changes and measured the effects. Elmar Turk, one of Asperger’s associates as a postdoctoral student under Hamburger, used premature infants to study the effect of vitamin D on rickets; knowing that premature babies were particularly susceptible to the condition, Turk withheld prophylaxis, allowing thirteen of the fifteen infants in his control group to develop rickets.

Hamburger took special interest in Turk’s lethal tuberculosis experiments on children. Turk selected babies as his test subjects who he considered to be “severely damaged from birth trauma, unviable, and idiotic.” He administered a tuberculosis vaccine, Calmette-Guerin (BCG), to two of them, and then infected all three babies with “virulent tuberculosis bacillus.” He sent them to Speigelgrund for observation and, eventually, autopsies. The two vaccinated babies died within a month—not of tuberculosis, but reportedly of pneumonia, the main official cause of death at Spiegelgrund. The unvaccinated child overcame the tuberculosis after a painful four-month ordeal but still died.

Turk repeated his tuberculosis experiment one year later on an “idiotic, syphilitic” three-and-a-half-year-old, Adolf Guttmann, whom he did not. As he transferred little Adolf to Spiegelgrund for observation, Turk sent a macabre so-called “wish list” to the director for the boy’s death and postmortem study: “I would request that you inform me in the event of the child’s death so that I may be present at the autopsy, as I intend to conduct various histological examinations.” While the child still lived, Spiegelgrund staff were to take specialized notes on Adolf’s condition and conduct x-rays at regular intervals. Turk added, “I hope you are not burdened by this.” After Adolf arrived at Spiegelgrund, staff reported that the boy “was quiet and peaceful, laughs occasionally when one strokes him on the cheek.” Adolf was killed two and a half months after his arrival…

Hamburger’s postdoctoral student Heribert Goll, with whom Asperger had copublished in 1939, also conducted experiments on babies at the Children’s Hospital. Overseen by Hamburger, Goll explained that he selected “only infants unfit to live.” For his 1941 publication in the Munich Medical Weekly, Goll deprived babies of Vitamin A in order to measure the vitamin’s effects on the development of keratomalacia, a common cause of blindness. The condition dried the cornea and membrane that covers the white of the eye, resulting potentially, over time, in frothy patches called Bitot spots, ulceration, infection, and rupture of the eye. After Goll, withheld vitamin A from the infants for months, a number of them did, indeed, develop preliminary keratomalacia. Then, in a second experiment, Goll sought to infect babies with keratomalacia by placing secretions from the eye of one girl with the disease onto the eyes of four healthy children. When the method failed, he tried again by localizing the bacteria, which again failed.

Goll raised the stakes of his research in his 1942 publication for the Munich Medical Weekly, depriving twenty babies of fats and vitamin A in periods of up to three hundred days. After the infants died—perhaps forcibly killed, perhaps perishing from their maltreatment—Goll examined their livers from autopsies. Six-month-old Anna Mick was selected for the study; her health had been “robust” despite her hydrocephalus and bed sores on her head. She wasted away on Goll’s diet, lying in the Children’s Hospital while staff prodded her eyes and body for fluid and tissue samples. In less than four months, Anna died from “increasing feebleness.”

Asperger worked in the midst of his colleagues’ human experiments at the Children’s Hospital and would have known about their deadly methods, which they touted in prominent journals. He walked past babies in daily life who were injected, infected, and starved… Asperger—in cofounding the Vienna Society for Curative Education with Franz Hamburger, Erwin Jekelius, and Max Gundel in 1941—was collaborating with three top perpetrators of child killing in Vienna…

Asperger then brought up “eugenic issues” before the Vienna Society, pointing out that “proper assessment” of children was “already a good portion of their ‘treatment.’” Again, one could take these words at face value, as advocating careful care of children. But “treatment,” or Behandlung, was a euphemism that euthanasia personnel used for killing a child. It is curious that Asperger used quotation marks around the word, which suggests he might, indeed, be signaling a veiled meaning for “‘treatment’” —especially on the heels of recommending “prolonged and stationary observation” at Spiegelgrund. After all, the Vienna Society was run by notorious Spiegelgrund leaders, and Jekelius’s inaugural address had already set the stage with his reference to children unworthy of care. Given widespread knowledge of the euthanasia program in Vienna, it is likely that many in the audience were aware of the potential consequences of sending “difficult cases” to Spiegelgrund, as well as the regime’s desire to eliminate children deemed to be defective…..

Heirich Gross, one of the most notorious figures, came to work at Spiegelgrund in mid-November 1940 as child killing were gaining momentum. He was barely twenty-six, having graduated from the University of Vienna Medical School just the year before and worked for a short time at the psychiatric institution Ybbs an der Donau. At Spiegelgrund, Gross served under medical director Jekelius, ten years his senior. Like Jekelius, Gross had been a Nazi enthusiast when the party was still a fringe terrorist organization in Austria; he joined the Hitler Youth in 1932 and the SA in 1933, gaining successive promotions to SA squad leader by 1938.

Seven months after Gross came to work at Spiegelgrund, in June 1941, he went to Germany to train for six weeks under curative education proponent Hans Heinze, who taught killing methods to spiring euthanasia doctors, one of the top three figures in child euthanasia in the entire Reich.

When Gross returned to Vienna after his training with Heinze, the death rate at Spiegelgrund more than tripled… Gross also emulated Heinze in harvesting and preserving victims’ brains. Heinze was distributing many hundreds of adult and child brains to German physicians for research as Gross began his collection of children’s brains at Spiegelgrund for his own work. Children at Spiegelgrund called Gross, who practiced medicine in military uniform, “scythe” or the “Grim Reaper.” (The preservation and research of victim brains is evidence that they would have been able to examine and see the morphological changes to the brain from their organochlorine munition technologies.)

The second director of Spiegelgrund, Ernst Illing, also trained with Heinze. Like Heinze, Illing had spent his early career at the University of Leipzig, and Illing then followed Heinze to Gorden in 1935. Illing worked under Heinze for seven years, conducting some fo the Reich’s first child killings. Illing was highly trained, then, when Heinze and Vienna’s Public Health Office tapped him, at age thirty-eight, to succeed Jekelius as medical director of Spiegelgrund, where he served from July 1, 1942, until April 1945….

And child euthanasia came to pervade Vienna’s medical community at large, reaching far beyond just curative education, as many doctors acquiesced and even welcomed the measures. Illing described in his October 1945 deposition how Viennese physicians readily ridded their wards of children they deemed disabled. He singled out Hamburger and Asperger’s Children’s Hospital by name:

My clinic was always overcrowded since the other clinics, the Welfare Clinic, the Children’s Hospital Glanzing, and the University Children’s Hospital handed over, or wanted to hand over, these hopeless cases—obviously in the belief that euthanasia was legally possible at my clinic due to the aforementioned directive [euthanasia order], while they themselves were not allowed to conduct euthanasia. I am completely confident that the leaders of these institutions were in the know about euthanasia and the aforementioned directives.

Asperger had publicly encouraged his colleagues to transfer “difficult cases” of children to Spiegelgrund—and he followed his own recommendation…

Austrian scholar Herwig Czech has uncovered that Asperger’s panel reviewed the files of 210 children in a single day, slotting them into special schools supposedly appropriate to their level of disability. The commission deemed 35 of the 210 children, 9 girls and 26 boys, “incapable of educational and developmental engagement.” These youths were sent to Spiegelgrund, as the written committee instructions required, to be “dispatched for Jekelius Action.”

“Jekelius Action” was an instruction to kill. All of the 35 youths transferred by Asperger’s commission died. …

At Spiegelgrund, Herta’s photograph showed her crying, her dark hair shaved, and staring straight into the camera. Herta’s mother reportedly beseeched doctor Margarethe Hubsch, in tears: “If the child could not be helped, perhaps it would be better if she would die, as she would have nothing in this world anyway, she would be a laughing stock of the others.” Hubsch explained that, “as a mother of so many other children, she would not wish that on her, so it would be better if she died.” Herta’s mother conveyed at least some of her sentiments to Asperger, too, as he noted in his Spiegelgrund transfer order that “when at home, this child must present an unbearable burden to the mother.” On August 8, Jekelius sent Herta’s records to the Reich Committee in Berlin for authorization to kill the girl. Herta died soon thereafter, two months after Asperger’s transfer. Pneumonia was Herta’s official cause of death. (Herta was only two-years-old)

Chapter 7: The Daily Life of Death
Spiegelgrund’s second director, Ernst Illing, inflicted diagnostic practices on children that could be deadly. Pneumatic encephalography, for example, was an excruciating procedure that injected air into children’s brains after the removal of spinal fluid in order to conduct X-rays showing the cerebral ventricles. Spiegelgrund doctors also collected children’s body parts for research. Most notorious was Dr. Heinrich Gross, who preserved the brains of over four hundred children in jars meticulously stacked and labeled on shelves in the basement, which he used in his research through the 1980s. Indeed, the body parts of children killed at Spiegelgrund were disseminated among a number of research facilities, providing the basis of research long after the war….

Deaths also became part of the daily routine. Marianne Turk and Heinrich Gross even resided on the Spiegelgrund grounds, with Ernst Illing choosing to live with his family in Pavilion 15, the death ward. After the war, Turk reflected on just how habituated she had become to the life of murder, ordering overdoses of Luminal, Veronal, and morphine in injections and in pulverized tablets added to cocoa powder or other foods that children would gladly eat. “With the cases that we had by the dozens in the institution, putting an end to this human wretchedness was an automatic thought.” Turk outlined how the implementation of death orders was quotidian, too:

“The nurses—who undertook the actual execution since they added the sleeping pills to the food—had access to the medicine cabinet. They would be told by Dr. Illing or me that the decisions about child X or Y had arrived, and the nurses knew what they had to do.”…

The mother of Herta Gschwandtner, Luise, openly confronted Spiegelgrund staff about the killings. Herta was born “mongoloid,” and transferred to Spiegelgrund in 1943 at one-and-half years old. She died just eleven days after her transfer, ostensibly of pneumonia. Luise Gschwandnter was incredulous at the speed of her daughter’s death. She wrote to Ernst Illing and Spiegelgrund nurses, “I still can’t grasp why my dear little Herta had to leave me so fast, to die so quickly. […] We still can not believe that our child Herthi was not curable.” Gschwandtner went on, “I am completely heartbroken. I would gladly sacrifice my life for my child…. Please excuse me for my bad writing, which I wrote with very tearful eyes.” In her letter, Gschwandtner went so far as to suggest that Herta was murdered. “Now I have to bear twice the pain because people are saying straight to my face that she was simply poisoned, so to speak, eliminated.” Illing wrote back that nothing was amiss with her daughter’s death. He warned Gschwandtner that he would launch police action if the deaths at Spiegelgrund continued to be questioned: “I would also ask you to vigorously oppose rumors of that kind; if necessary, I will lodge a complaint against such rumormongers.”

But rumors about the killings were rife in Vienna, and exacerbated families’ anguish over the deaths of their children. The parents of two-month-old Hermann Dockl were devastated when their daughter, diagnosed as “mongoloid,” perished five weeks after her admission to Spiegelgrund, reportedly of pneumonia. The Dockl’s family doctor, Hans Geyer, asked Illing to give him a medical accounting of Hermine’s death in order to alleviate the relatives’ torment; he said a proper explanation would bring the family “peace and dispel all the hushed rumors and conjectures.” Hermine’s mother, Geyer warned, was “expressing suicidal intentions and cannot be left alone.” Illing replied simply that the infant had “severe weakness of life” and that the good doctor should surely know that “mongoloid” children had shorter life expectancies.”

The majority of parents’ letters in the case files of children killed at Spiegelgrund are heart wrenching. They voice sorrow, disbelief, anger—and frequently demand more information about how their children died. There was, nevertheless, a wide range of responses. A number of families expressed acceptance, even approval of their child’s untimely death. After all, many in the Reich even sought their child’s admission to killing wards in the hopes their child might perish. They might complain about the burden of caring for their child, perhaps while struggling to make ends meet, with other children at home or a husband away at war. Yet discussions of child-killing was not just limited to to the strains of the Third Reich. The idea of ending “life unworthy of life” had circulated long before the Nazis came to power. In 1925, Ewald Meltzer, the head of the asylum in Saxony, grew so concerned about the ethics of the issue that he asked the parents of children at his institution: “Would you agree to the painless curtailment of the life of your child if experts had established that it was suffering from incurable idiocy?” To his dismay, 73 percent of the parents who participated in the survey answered “yes.”

Spiegelgrund staff said that some parents held explicit conversations about death wishes for their children. The mother of a toddler who Asperger transferred to Spiegelgrund, Herta Schreiber, allegedly told doctor Margarethe Hubsch, “It would be better if she died.” Marianne Turk noted that one mother of a child with epilepsy “thought it would be a comfort and a reassurance to her if the child could close her eyes forever.” Both children were, indeed, killed…

Survivor Leopoldine Maier, contemplating her experience at Spiegelgrund, suggested that complicity in the cruelty—and in the Nazis system as a whole—was pervasive and inescapable. She said people’s potential for depravity would torment her throughout her life.

“Each person raises the question in me: Are you for me or against me? It was always a question of survival. And that question still lingers with me somehow when I meet somebody: With whom is he siding now and with whom was he siding then. And would he have helped you had he known or would he not have helped you at all. […] I am not angry with anybody for how can you be mad with somebody when the evil has no name, when the evil is just part of life, like it was the case there. But the evil belonged there, it was everyday life, and nobody questioned it.”

Chapter 9: In Service to the Volk
The mission of eliminated undesirable children mirrored the Reich’s ambition to eliminate undesirable populations. While Nazi psychiatrists killed youths at home, sequestered behind the walls of hospitals and sanatoria, the Reich wreaked Armageddon across the continent…

The Nazi state aimed to establish a new order in Europe. From 1939 until 1942, its goal appeared to be in sight. The Reich occupied territories, created satellite states, and forged alliances across eastern and western Europe, from Bulgaria to Estonia to Norway to France. Germany even had aspirations in North Africa, too, waging war in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt.

In Vienna, most people, including Asperger, supported the Reich. Many were pleased that the Nazi state invested in rebuilding the Austrian economy; Germany coordinated Austria into its war machine, unemployment dropped, large firms boomed, commerce modernized….. The former nation became seven Reich districts, or Reichsgaue, that were collectively called the Ostmark and, after 1942, the “Danubian and Alpine Districts.” The new boundaries tripled the size of greater Vienna, making it the second-largest city in the Reich—yet the regime reduced Vienna’s power from a capital to a provincial city and kept Austria peripheral to the Reich overall…

For Asperger and his associates in Vienna, quality of life remained relatively high throughout the war. Reich citizens fared well compared to the populations they subjugated, typically better fed, housed, and spared the ravages of the battlefield.

*(This author clearly never read the book, The Last Train From Berlin, by Howard K. Smith, 1942. Independent journalists tell a far different story about the state of “Reich citizens.” )

Vienna was also spared the worst of Allied bombing. The Allies unleashed explosives on sixty-one Reich cities during the war, destroying one in five homes and killing around six hundred thousand civilians; the fire-bombing of Hamburg and Dresden raised street temperatures over 1,500 degrees Celsius that turned people into ash in seconds. But Vienna, known as the “Reich’s air raid shelter,” was out of reach until the Allies established bombing flotillas in Italy in the spring of 1944. Missions then aimed for tactical targets in the city rather than carpet bombing, and killed twenty-four thousand civilians.

As Europe collapsed, Germans and Austrians continued to sustain the Reich. Asperger and his colleagues worked through the destruction, publishing, debating, and delivering lectures to one another. Nazi child psychiatry was only a small pocket of activity within the regime’s efforts to remake Europe. But practitioners took their task seriously, and continued to work in earnest even as the continent descended into mass slaughter.
The Third Reich harnessed a curious juxtaposition of efforts, of total war versus erudite debates, of genocide versus journal articles. But the task to mold the mind mattered, as psychiatrists discussed the finer points of Nazi philosophy while carnage raged around them…

Later in life, Asperger emphasized what he had gained from his time in Yugoslavia, highlighting his fortitude and heroism. Echoing longstanding masculine ideals of proving one’s mettle in battle, Asperger recalled, “I was in Croatia, deployed in the partisan war. I wouldn’t want to have missed any of these experiences. It is good to know how you behave when facing danger, as the bullets whistle by—it is also a place where you are tested.”

Apparently Asperger found fulfillment amid the carnage and the Wehrmacht’s notoriously vicious conduct in Yugoslavia. Reich reprisal policy, for example, meant killing one hundred citizens for every German soldier killed….

Chapter 10: Reckoning.
Spiegelgrund survivors continued to suffer after their release. For Franz Pulkert, life did not improve much. “The violence, that was commonplace at the time, I mean, with my parents this wasn’t different either, because my mother wasn’t any better.” Friedrich Zawrel recalled, “My father continued drinking. At home, it was as bad as before.” Karl Hamedler, who was in his mid-teens, was bitter. “At that age you just don’t know what to do with yourself. There you are in the world, and nobody gives a shit about you, to put it bluntly. Even Leopoldine Maier, whose mother had journeyed to Spiegelgrund every week and rescued her, was troubled. She confessed, “I also very often ran away from my mother. I always had my bag with leftover food so I would not starve.”….

For Leopoldine Maier, legal recognition was cold comfort. She was still “crippled by these childhood memories,” she explained. “When I do not watch myself, I always pull my neck in as if I were in constant fear of being hit in the neck with a stick or something else. […] Whenever I wake up in the morning, I tell myself that I am old and it is over and that to me it will never happen again. This is my ritual each and every morning. I tell myself it is over and I survived it.”

Maier dedicated her life to sustaining life. She became a nurse in Vienna and, she said, “I would have loved to have a child just to spare the child what I had to go through.” But Maier found her fallopian tubes were blocked. Although there is no record of it in her files, she suspects she was sterilized during the Third Reich. Haunted by Spiegelgrund’s physical and mental abuse, Maier confided, “The term ‘unworthy of life’ is still ringing in my ears. There is still a sign above my life that says: strictly speaking, you have no right to live.”….

Even top Reich-level euthanasia figures, Hans Heinze and Werner Villinger, had flourishing postwar careers as Germany’s leading psychiatrists. Franz Hamburger, who had become emeritus in 1944, never faced trial. The enormous role Hamburger’s Children Hospital played in the killing system also went unrecognized. Hamburger’s student, Elmar Turk, who conducted tuberculosis experiments on children with Hamburger, practiced through the 1990s and drew on his human experiments from the Third Reich. The body parts of children killed at Spiegelgrund continued to circulate among Vienna’s research laboratories, the basis of its physicians’ publications for decades.

Spiegelgrund doctor Heinrich Gross published thirty-eight articles over twenty-five years—several based on the preserved brains of over four hundred children that he had harvested at Spiegelgrund during the Third Reich, collaborating with associates (such as Andreas Rest, who named Rett syndrome). Gross became a preeminent physical in Austria and was awarded the government’s Honorary Cross for Science and Art in 1975. Despite court proceedings against him in 1948 and 1981, Gross managed to evade conviction for murder. A rock solid case against Gross finally headed to court in 2000, but Gross was deemed unfit to stand trial due to advanced dementia—a condition many observers disputed. Gross died in 2005 at age ninety….

In 2002, the remains of Spiegelgrund’s victims were buried and memorialized—including the brains Gross had collected, which were discovered in Spiegelgrund’s basement, in neatly stacked glass jars. *(Thus they buried the evidence of the morphological and structural damages from IG Farben’s munition technologies branched from their ethylene tree)

Asperger was cleared of wrongdoing after the war… Asperger benefited from the vacuum and was appointed interim director of the University of Vienna Children’s Hospital from 1946 to 1949… He enjoyed a long career. In 1957, Asperger was named director of the University of Innsbruck Children’s Hospital; in 1962, Asperger followed in Hamburger’s footsteps as permanent director of the University of Vienna Children’s Hospital. Asperger wrote a textbook, Heilpadagogik, which found success in several editions—and his field of “curative education” expanded and shifted toward mainstream “special education.”

The Curative Education Clinic sent children to Spiegelgrund’s successor institution, Wilhelminenberg…. Anna Theresa Kimmel, seen in Asperger’s clinic, later described her encounter with Asperger. “I stood facing a tall, tall man in a white coat. Light-haired. The size difference was enormous. And I only know that he greeted my mother, and then looked at me and punched me in the stomach with full force. Yes? My reaction was: no howling, nothing, but I probably looked at him angrily. And so he told me, he told my mother that I had aggression.” Kimmel said she was institutionalized, held in a cage bed for a month. Afterward, Kimmel reflected, “I never heard from Asperger again. I don’t know, was I a test subject? Was I a person? Was I a piece of wood? A guinea pig? I have no idea.”…

Asperger held that the souls of the terminally ill youths “were always very different from the ‘normal’” As he put it, “Their fine spiritual differentiation results from a weakening in their primitive vitality through the existing disease—a consequence of the disease. In other words, illness changed children’s souls and permanently aged them, completing their development. It was appropriate that they perished earlier than others. In his 1975 article, “The Dying Child,” Asperger invoked scripture to conclude the point, citing the Wisdom of Solomon: children who die young “live a long life in a short span of time.”…

In Asperger’s view, the doctor’s role was to guide the child and his or her parents, particularly the grieving mother, down the path of death—to “fulfill his noble duty as guide into the realm of the natural.”

In his 1975 article, “The Dying Child,” Asperger also wrote that the doctor should “serve in death.” It is unclear exactly what Asperger meant by the phrase, but juxtaposed it with what he called “active euthanasia.” – Asperger’s Children: The Origins of Autism in Nazi Vienna by Edith Sheffer

The IG Farben employees, Vienna doctors, destroyed the evidence of the harm of their employer’s munition technology products. Theo Colborn called their benzene technology products, womb terrorists. They didn’t destroy the technologies causing all the harm. They expanded their ethylene tree based munition markets and exterminated the infants and children destroyed by them.
The Last Train From Berlin by Howard K. Smith
“Other vegetables came to count as luxuries. Tomatoes were rationed too for a while, then disappeared altogether to canning factories where they could be preserved and sent to the Eastern front. Two-vegetable meals became virtually extinct. Scarcities were made more severe by the prudence of the food ministry which, having its palms slapped once, began to play it safe by preparing more and more canned goods for the troops in the event that the war should last through the winter….

Ersatz foods flourished. Icing for the few remaining pastries tasted like a mixture of saccharine, sand and cheap perfume. White bread was issued after the third month of the campaign only on the ration cards formerly for pastry. A red coloured paste called Lachs Galantine, resembling salmon in color and soggy sawdust in taste, appeared in restaurants on meatless days. Several strange bottled sauces made of incredible combinations of acid-tasting chemicals made their appearance in shops to answer the public’s growing demand for something to put a taste of some kind in their unattractive and scanty meals…

Cigarettes suffered the most rapid decline in quality… My tobacconist told me “Johnnies” were made of the same dry, powdery, inferior tobacco as other cigarettes, but the leaves were sprayed with a chemical to give them a distinctive flavour and kill their original one. The chemical, he said, was severely damaging to the lungs, which I can believe…

It caused visible pain to the old bar-tender to answer an order for a cocktail saying he was dreadfully sorry but today, precisely today, he had run out of all the ingredients. But perhaps tomorrow. Actually, all he had was some raw liquor the management had been able to squeeze out of a farm-house outside Berlin, Himbeergeist, or a fake Vodka that took the roof off your mouth, or wood alcohol with perfume in it which was served under the name of Sclibovitz, two fingers to a customer and no more…

Civilian hospitals are overcrowded and doctors overworked. Environment, which has a great deal to do with mental health and well-being has grown seedy and ugly. Hours are longer and real wages immeasurably lower than they were before the Russian war. Families are losing their youngest and strongest members, or seeing them some home legless and armless. The horizon of the average German is desolate….

Today, also after two years of war, there are only two meat dishes on the menu, one of which is struck through with a pencil mark along the strategy of the Kaiserhof Hotel. The other is generally two little sausages of uncertain contents, each about the size of a cigar butt. Before the meat they give you a chalky, red, warm liquid called tomato soup, but which a good-natured waiter-friend of mine always called: Ee-gay Farben Nummer zwei nulleex! all of which means, “Dye trust formula number 20-X.” With the meat you get four or five yellow potatoes with black blotches on them…

Hitler’s solution to the crisis was not by making useful goods but by producing the greatest aggregation of arms, which nobody can eat, or wear, in all history…”
Portions from pages 120 – 149)*(You can actually consume munitions, Americans consume so much splenda that it’s the number 1 artificial sweetener. It’s an organochlorine and you can guarantee that it destroys your brain like all the rest of those sulfur chlorine carbon creations…)

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The Poison Papers and DARPA’s first project

Children of America pay a heavy price for our nation’s ignorance.. DARPA’s first project even kills and destroys our own children till this day. “A child of ten-months-old fell sick with vomiting, diarrhea, and fever and became comatose. The etiological inquiry revealed that her paraplegia was due to an intoxication by a derivative of 2’4-D utilized to kill weeds.”

“DARPA’s mandate, as was instructed to Congress when DARPA was created in 1958, was “to create vast weapon systems of the future” – that was its job.” – Annie Jacobsen

DARPA’s first project was to expand organochlorine weapon technology markets.

“Also in the first three months of the CIA’s existence, the National Security Council issued Directive No. 3, dealing specifically with the “production of intelligence and the coordination of intelligence activities within the intelligence community.” The National Security Council wanted to know who was producing what intelligence and how that information was being coordinated among agencies. In the opinion of the CIA, “the link between scientific planning and military research on a national scale did not hitherto exist.” The result was the creation of the Scientific Intelligence Committee (SIC), chaired by the CIA and with members from the army, the navy, the air force, the State Department, and the Atomic Energy Commission. “Very early in its existence the SIC undertook to define scientific intelligence, delineate areas of particular interest and establish committees to handle these areas,” wrote SIC chairman Dr. Karl Weber, in a CIA monograph that remained classified until September 2008. “Priority was accorded to atomic energy, biological warfare, chemical warfare, electronic warfare, guided missiles, aircraft, undersea warfare and medicine” —every area involving Operation Paperclip scientists. Each scientific intelligence subcommittees were created, one for each area of warfare.” – Operation Paperclip: The Secret Intelligence Program That Brought Nazi Scientists to America by Annie Jacobsen (Page 315)

Nazi Operation Paperclip candidate Fritz Hoffman’s Agent Orange was manufactured by Dow Chemical. His synthetic chemical creations are now used everywhere in the US on yards and agricultural crops to kill weeds…

“During the Vietnam War, I remember one evening we were at the dinner table and the war was on the news,” Gabriella Hoffmann explains. The family was watching TV. “Dad was usually a quiet man, so when he spoke up you remembered it. He pointed to the news–you could see the jungles of Vietnam, and he said, ‘Wouldn’t it be easier to defoliate the trees so you could see the enemies?’ That’s what he said. I remember it clearly. Years later I learned one of Dad’s projects was the development of Agent Orange.”

The army’s herbicidal warfare program during the Vietnam War started in August 1961 and lasted until February 1971. More than 11.4 million gallons of Agent Orange were sprayed over approximately 24 percent of South Vietnam, destroying 5 million acres of uplands and forests and 500,000 acres of food crops–an area about the size of the state of Massachusetts. An additional 8 million gallons of other anti-crop agents, code-named Agents White, Blue, Purple, and Green, were also sprayed, mostly from C-123 cargo planes. Fritz Hoffmann was one of the earliest known U.S. Army Chemical Corps scientists to research the toxic effects of dioxin–possibly in the mid-1950s but for certain in 1959–as indicated in what has become known as the Hoffmann Trip Report. This document is used in almost every legal record pertaining to litigation by U.S. military veterans against the U.S. government and chemical manufacturers for its usage of herbicides and defoliants in the Vietnam War.

Fritz Hoffmann’s untimely death came like something out of a Special Operations Division’s Agent Branch playbook. He suffered a serious illness that came on quickly, lasted for a relatively short time, and was followed by death. On Christmas Eve 1966, Fritz Hoffmann was diagnosed with cancer. Racked with pain, he lay in bed watching his favorite television shows–“Cowboy westerns and Rod Serling in the Twilight Zone,” Gabriella Hoffmann recalls. One hundred days later, Fritz Hoffmann was dead. He was fifty-six years old.”

page 387 – 388

The United States use of children in all their wars is the true abomination. The US FAKE concern of children’s health and well being makes my head explode. The US doesn’t give a fu@k about any children, including their own. They knowingly allow chemical weapons to destroy their own children. Hell, they even subsidize the program that poisons them at their schools. It’s important to provide evidence and an important history lesson that provides understanding of their blatant hypocrisy. Citizens need first to understand the origins of chemical weapons to understand the extent of US hypocrisy.

An important excerpt from Operation Paperclip: The Secret Intelligence Program that Brought Nazi Scientists to America by Annie Jacobson. (Pulitzer history finalist author)

“This nerve agent was code-named VX (the V stood for venomous)–a battlefield killer that was three times more toxic than sarin when inhaled and one thousand times more lethal when it came into contact with the skin. Ten milligrams of VX could kill a man in fifteen minutes. VX would be more effective on the battlefield than sarin ever would be; sarin dissipated within fifteen or so minutes, but when VX was sprayed, it stayed on the ground for up to twenty-one days. Now, in 1957, the Chemical Corps began producing VX by the thousands of tons. Operation Paperclip scientist Fritz Hoffmann moved over from synthesizing tabun at Edgewood to working on VX munitions. But Fritz Hoffmann’s more haunting legacy lies in the work he performed for the CIA’s Special Operations Division and the Chemical Corps’ antiplant division. Antiplant agents include chemical or biological pathogens, as well as insects, that are then used as part of a program to harm crops, foliage, or other plant life.

After the death of Frank Olson, the SO Division continued its LSD mind control schemes, But Sidney Gottlieb, the man who had suggested poisoning Frank Olson at the CIA safe house in Deep Creek Lake, Maryland, was assigned to also work on the CIA’s assassination-by-poison program. Fritz Hoffmann was one of the chemists at the locus of the program. “He was our teacher,” Edgewood laboratory director Dr. Seymour Silver told journalist Linda Hunt. “He was the guy who brought to our attention any discoveries that happened around the world and then said, ‘Here’s a new chemical, you better test it.'”….. page 384

A reminder about what Agent Orange was and those herbicides being sprayed where children play.

*According to the EPA, 25% of samples of 2,4-D were contaminated with dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD), which is mutagenic, carcinogenic, and causes reproductive problems at very small doses (CDC NIOSH, 2005). – and that’s what Agent Orange was. It was 2,4-D contaminated with 2,3,7,8-TCDD dioxin.

The contaminated 2’4-D stockpiles were Agent Orange. Dow was fully aware of contamination problems with their synthetic chemical technologies.

“notably, its knowledge of chloracne outbreaks during the 1950s among German workers exposed to TCP, a precursor chemical of 2,4,5-T; the 1959 Hoffman Report, containing “startling information” about dioxin’s toxicity; testing at Edgewood Arsenal during the early 1960s; knowledge of the dioxin contamination problem among government scientists during the mid to late 1960s; discussions of the issue within PSAC; and the Bionetics studies. He concluded that “uncontradicted and uncontested evidence… reveals that the government and the military possessed rather extensive knowledge…” – Agent Orange on Trial (page 99)

Americans don’t even care that chemical weapons are used on their own children. All chlorinated synthetics have dioxin contamination through manufacturing processing. They spray 2-4D all over school playgrounds around this nation daily and American taxes subsidize the program. Fu@king pisses me off that citizens here lose their shit when they hear from the same media that sells them their TruGreen chemical weapon products, the regime change propaganda… “the regime used chemical weapons on children” bullshit. Americans are “dumber than a bag of hammers” as they say here in the south…. They buy everything that the Merchants of Death sell. Hell, an organochlorine synthetic is our best selling artificial “sugar” in the States. They buy and eat it all up… “The substance in the flask seemed to have all the makings of an excellent insecticide. It was a fine crystaline powder and its molecules were full of chlorine atoms, like DDT. ..by taking an eye-dropper full of sulfuryl chloride – a highly toxic chemical – and adding it to a sugar solution, one drop at a time. In the violent reaction that followed, a wholly new compound was born: 1′, 4,6,6′-tetrachloro-1′,4,6,6′-tetra-deoxygalactosucrose. “It isn’t of any use as an insecticide,” Hough told me recently, “That was tested.” But it has proven useful as a food. In its pure form, it is known as sucralose. When mixed with fillers and sold in bright yellow sachets, it’s known as Splenda, the best-selling artificial sweetener in America.”

Sucralose was declared safe by the Food and Drug Administration in 1998, but most of the taste researchers I talked to won’t eat it.” (With good fu@king reason) – The information above was from The Search For Sweet by Burkhard Bilger for The New Yorker – May 22, 2006.

It’s why I completely ignore Merchants of Death manufactured media events. The Merchants of Death and their two US political parties, political puppets, media, banks, corporations, foundations, non-profit organizations, Hollywood and TV productions, and more are all our true enemies. Our ruling capital class are the true terrorists. They manufacture and profit from many munition markets. Their propaganda media network sells all their products from their bombs dropped on distant shores to secure resources for their production to the genetic bombs placed in our children destroying their health. We must stop them.

100,000 Pages of Chemical Industry Secrets Gathered Dust in an Oregon Barn for Decades — Until Now

By Sharon Lerner

For decades, some of the dirtiest, darkest secrets of the chemical industry have been kept in Carol Van Strum’s barn. Creaky, damp, and prowled by the occasional black bear, the listing, 80-year-old structure in rural Oregon housed more than 100,000 pages of documents obtained through legal discovery in lawsuits against Dow, Monsanto, the Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Forest Service, the Air Force, and pulp and paper companies, among others.

As of today, those documents and others that have been collected by environmental activists will be publicly available through a project called the Poison Papers. Together, the library contains more than 200,000 pages of information and “lays out a 40-year history of deceit and collusion involving the chemical industry and the regulatory agencies that were supposed to be protecting human health and the environment,” said Peter von Stackelberg, a journalist who along with the Center for Media and Democracy and the Bioscience Resource Project helped put the collection online.

Van Strum didn’t set out to be the repository for the people’s pushback against the chemical industry. She moved to a house in the Siuslaw National Forest in 1974 to live a simple life. But soon after she arrived, she realized the Forest Service was spraying her area with an herbicide called 2,4,5-T — on one occasion, directly dousing her four children with it as they fished by the river.

The chemical was one of two active ingredients in Agent Orange, which the U.S. military had stopped using in Vietnam after public outcry about the fact that it caused cancer, birth defects, and serious harms to people, animals, and the environment. But in the U.S., the Forest Service continued to use both 2,4,5-T and the other herbicide in Agent Orange, 2,4-D, to kill weeds. (Timber was — and in some places still is — harvested from the national forest and sold.) Between 1972 and 1977, the Forest Service sprayed 20,000 pounds of 2,4,5-T in the 1,600-square-mile area that included Van Strum’s house and the nearby town of Alsea.

As in Vietnam, the chemicals hurt people and animals in Oregon, as well as the plants that were their target. Immediately after they were sprayed, Van Strum’s children developed nosebleeds, bloody diarrhea, and headaches, and many of their neighbors fell sick, too. Several women who lived in the area had miscarriages shortly after incidents of spraying. Locals described finding animals that had died or had bizarre deformities — ducks with backward-facing feet, birds with misshapen beaks, and blinded elk; cats and dogs that had been exposed began bleeding from their eyes and ears. At a community meeting, residents decided to write to the Forest Service detailing the effects of the spraying they had witnessed.

“We thought that if they knew what had happened to us, they wouldn’t do it anymore,” Van Strum said recently, before erupting into one of the many bursts of laughter that punctuate her conversation. We were sitting not far from the river where her children played more than 40 years ago, and her property remained much as it was back when the Forest Service first sprayed them with the herbicide. A mountain covered with alder and maple trees rose up across from her home, just as it did then, and the same monkey puzzle tree that was there when she moved in still shaded her dirt driveway.

But Van Strum, now 76, is much changed from the young woman who politely asked that the federal agency stop spraying many years ago. After the Forest Service refused their request to stop using the herbicides, she and her neighbors filed a suit that led to a temporary ban on 2,4,5-T in their area in 1977 and, ultimately, to a total stop to the use of the chemical in 1983.

For Van Strum, the suit was also the beginning of lifetime of battling the chemical industry. The lawyer who had taken their case offered a reduced fee in exchange for Van Strum’s unpaid research assistance. And she found she had a knack for poring over and parsing documents and keeping track of huge volumes of information. Van Strum provided guidance to others filing suit over spraying in national forests and helped filed another case that pointed out that the EPA’s registration of 2,4-D and other pesticides was based on fraudulent data from a company called Industrial Bio-Test Laboratories. That case led to a decision, in 1983, to stop all aerial herbicide spraying by the Forest Service.

“We didn’t think of ourselves as environmentalists, that wasn’t even a word back then,” Van Strum said. “We just didn’t want to be poisoned.”

Still, Van Strum soon found herself helping with a string of suits filed by people who had been hurt by pesticides and other chemicals. “People would call up and say, ‘Do you have such and such?’ And I’d go clawing through my boxes,” said Van Strum, who often wound up acquiring new documents through these requests — and storing those, too, in her barn.

Along the way, she amassed disturbing evidence about the dangers of industrial chemicals — and the practices of the companies that make them. Two documents, for instance, detailed experiments that Dow contracted a University of Pennsylvania dermatologist to conduct on prisoners in the 1960s to show the effects of TCDD, a particularly toxic contaminant found in 2,4,5-T. Another document, from 1985, showed that Monsanto had sold a chemical that was tainted with TCDD to the makers of Lysol, who, apparently unaware of its toxicity, used it as an ingredient in their disinfectant spray for 23 years. Yet another, from 1990, detailed the EPA policy of allowing the use of hazardous waste as inert ingredients in pesticides and other products under certain circumstances.

There were limits to what Van Strum could prove through her persistent data collection. The EPA had undertaken a study of the relationship between herbicide exposure and miscarriages and had taken tissue samples from water, animals, a miscarried fetus, and a baby born without a brain in the area. The EPA never released the full results of the “Alsea study,” as it was called, and insisted it had lost many of them. But a lab chemist provided Van Strum with what he said was the analysis of the test results he had been hired to do for the EPA, which showed the samples from water, various animals, and “products of conception” were significantly contaminated with TCDD.

When confronted, the EPA claimed there had been a mix-up and that the samples were from another area. Van Strum filed a Freedom of Information Act request for the results and, for years, battled in court to get to the bottom of what happened. Though the EPA provided more than 34,000 pages in response to her request (which Van Strum carefully numbered and stored in her barn), the agency never released all the results of the study or fully explained what had happened to them or where the contaminated samples had been taken. And eventually, Van Strum gave up. The EPA declined to comment for this story.

She had to make peace with not fully understanding a personal tragedy, too. In 1977, her house burned to the ground and her four children died in the fire. Firefighters who came to the scene said the fact that the whole house had burned so quickly pointed to the possibility of arson. But an investigation of the causes of the fire was never completed.

Van Strum suspected some of her opponents might have set the fire. It was a time of intense conflict between local activists and employees of timber companies, chemical manufacturers, and government agencies over the spraying of herbicides. A group of angry residents in the area near Van Strum’s home had destroyed a Forest Service helicopter that had been used for spraying. And, on one occasion, Van Strum had come home to find some of the defenders of the herbicides she was attacking in court on her property.

“I’ve accepted that I’ll never really know” what happened, said Van Strum, who never rebuilt her house and now lives in an outbuilding next to the cleared site where it once stood.

But her commitment to the battle against toxic chemicals survived the ordeal. “If it was intentional, it was the worst thing that ever happened to me,” she said. “After that, there was nothing that could make me stop.”

Still, after all these years, Van Strum felt it was time to pass on her collection of documents, some of which pertain to battles that are still being waged, so “others can take up the fight.” And the seeds of many of the fights over chemicals going on today can be tied to the documents that sat in her barn. The Industrial Bio-Test Laboratories scandal is central in litigation over the carcinogenicity of Monsanto’s Roundup, for instance. And 2,4-D, the other active ingredient in Agent Orange, is still in use.

Meanwhile, private timber companies continue to use both 2,4-D and Roundup widely, though not in the national forest. Van Strum has been part of an effort to ban aerial pesticide spraying in the county, and is speaking on behalf of the local ecosystem in a related lawsuit.

“I get to play the Lorax,” Van Strum said. “It’s going to be fun.”

 

The Poison Papers

Documenting the Hidden History of Chemical
and Pesticide Hazards in the United States

The “Poison Papers” represent a vast trove of rediscovered chemical industry and regulatory agency documents and correspondence stretching back to the 1920s. Taken as a whole, the papers show that both industry and regulators understood the extraordinary toxicity of many chemical products and worked together to conceal this information from the public and the press. These papers will transform our understanding of the hazards posed by certain chemicals on the market and the fraudulence of some of the regulatory processes relied upon to protect human health and the environment. Search instructions for the Poison Papers.

The Poison Papers are a compilation of over 20,000 documents obtained from federal agencies and chemical manufacturers via open records requests and public interest litigation. They include internal scientific studies and summaries of studies, internal memos and reports, meeting minutes, strategic discussions, and sworn testimonies. The majority of these documents have been scanned and digitized by us for the first time and represent nearly three tons of material. The regulatory agency sources of these documents include: the EPA, the USDA Forest Service, the FDA, the Veterans Administration, and the Department of Defense. Chemical manufacturers referenced in the documents include: Dow, Monsanto, DuPont, and Union Carbide, as well as many smaller manufacturers and the commercial testing companies who worked for them.

The Poison Papers are a project of the Bioscience Resource Project and the Center for Media and Democracy. The Poison Papers were largely collected by author and activist Carol Van Strum.

The Poison Papers catalogue both the secret concerns of industry and regulators over the hazards of pesticides and other chemicals and their efforts to conceal those concerns.

Corporate concealment is not a new story. What is novel in the Poison Papers is abundant evidence that EPA and other regulators were, often, knowing participants or even primary instigators of these cover-ups. These regulators failed to inform the public of the hazards of dioxins and other chemicals; of evidence of fraudulent independent testing; even of one instance of widespread human exposure. The papers thus reveal, in the often-incriminating words of the participants themselves, an elaborate universe of deception and deceit surrounding many pesticides and synthetic chemicals.

The chemicals most often discussed in the documents include herbicides and pesticides (such as 2,4-D, Dicamba, Permethrin, Atrazine, and Agent Orange), dioxins, and PCBs. Some of these chemicals are among the most toxic and persistent ever manufactured.

Except for PCBs, almost every chemical discussed in the Poison Papers is still manufactured and sold today, either as products or as product contaminants. Recent research from Australia, shows that many newly-synthesized chlorinated chemical products, including the herbicide 2,4-D, remain contaminated with dioxins. Notably, 2,4-D has just been authorized by EPA for use on Dow’s new GMO 2,4-D-tolerant soybeans.

Some of the 20,000+ documents in this repository have surfaced over the years. Many have never been either read or publicly written about. The Poison Papers therefore offer a unique opportunity for researchers, the public and the media to discover much more about what was known about chemical toxicity, when, and by whom.

Search Instructions
The Poison Papers have been uploaded as a group of PDF files in DocumentCloud. DocumentCloud is a searchable online public database available for free. It is best to select the “Poison Papers” group and search by key words such as company or chemical name. The search function scans the Optical Character Recognition (OCR) version of the papers. It is important to note that OCR is an imperfect process and the documents are far from being fully reviewed or catalogued, especially because some of the documents are handwritten notes. Download the Search Instructions.

Chemical Lowlights — Some of what the Poison Papers Reveal:

Secrecy— They disclose EPA meeting minutes of a secret high level dioxins working group that admitted dioxins are extraordinarily poisonous chemicals. The internal minutes contradict the Agency’s longstanding refusal to regulate dioxins or set legal limits.

Collusion— They demonstrate EPA collusion with the pulp and paper industry to “suppress, modify, or delay” the results of the congressionally-mandated National Dioxin Study, which found high levels of dioxins in everyday products, such as baby diapers and coffee filters, as well as pulp and paper mill effluents.

Deception— They provide important new data on the infamous Industrial Bio-Test (IBT) scandal. By the late 1970s, it was known that more than 800 safety studies performed by IBT on 140 chemicals produced by 38 chemical manufacturers were nonexistent, fraudulent, or invalid. The Poison Papers, however, show that EPA and its Canadian counterpart, the Health Protection Branch (HPB), colluded with pesticide manufacturers, to keep invalidly registered products on the market and covered up problems with many IBT tests.

Cover-up—  The papers also show that EPA staff had evidence that this IBT scandal involved more independent testing companies and more products than ever officially acknowledged.

Concealment— The papers show that EPA concealed and falsely discredited its own studies finding high levels of dioxin — 2,3,7,8-TCDD — in environmental samples and human breast milk following routine use of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T (Agent Orange) by the federal Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management.

Intent— They show Monsanto chief medical officer George Roush admitted under oath to knowing that Monsanto studies into the health effects of dioxins on workers were written up untruthfully for the scientific literature such as to obscure health effects. These fraudulent studies were heavily relied upon by EPA to avoid regulating dioxin. They also were relied upon to defend manufacturers in lawsuits brought by veterans claiming damages from exposure to Agent Orange.

https://www.poisonpapers.org/

 

 

 

 

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Merchants of Death: A Study of the International Armament Industry by H.C. Engelbrecht, PhD, and F.C. Hanighan, 1934 (Excerpts)

“In 1930, as a result of the endeavors of disarmament advocates, a treaty was signed between the United States, Great Britain, and Japan. While it fell far short of disarming these powers, it did agree on a joint policy of naval limitation and so prevented for a time a costly naval building competition between these countries. President Hoover submitted the treaty to the Senate for ratification. At this point an organization called the Navy League entered the picture. It raised strenuous objections to the treaty on the ground that it “jeopardized American security.” The League failed to convince the Senate, however, and the treaty was ratified.
Presumably the Navy League was a collection of individuals who distrusted international efforts to disarm and who believed that a large navy would insure the safety of the United States and its citizens. Some might assail these conservatives for clinging to reactionary ideas, but their point of view was a recognized patriotic policy upheld by many who had no connection with the League. But what was the Navy League and who were its backers?
Representative Claude H. Tavener made a speech in Congress in 1916 which revealed the results of his investigation into the nature and character of the League. He cited the League’s official journal to show that eighteen men and one corporation were listed as “founders.” The corporation was the Midvale Steel Company from which the government had bought more than $20,000,000 worth of armor plate, to say nothing of other materials. Among the individual founders were Charles M. Schwab, president of the Bethlehem Steel Corporation, which makes armor plate and other material; J.P. Morgan, of the United States Steel Corporation, which would profit heavily from large naval orders; Colonel R.M. Thompson, of the International Nickel Company, which dealt in nickel, that metal so necessary in making shells; and B.F. Tracy, former Secretary of Navy, who became attorney for the Carnegie Steel Company. More than half the founders of this energetic League were gentlemen whose business would benefit by large naval appropriations. It is evident from this that American arms makers have employed the Navy League to prevent Naval disarmament.
In Europe their colleagues are even more active. Hitler has now become the symbol of the return of German Militarism. Even before he managed to obtain supreme power there was speculation as to his financial backers. Obviously they included German industrialists fearful of socialism, communism, and the labor unions, nationalists smarting under the “insults” of the Versailles treaty, and a host of other discontented folk. But on the list of contributors supplying funds to the Hitler movement were the names of two capitalists—VonArthaber and Von Duschnitz—directors of Skoda, the great armament firm of Germany’s neighbor and enemy, Czechoslovakia.
Interlocking directorates are a familiar phenomenon in the United States. The real controller of industries is frequently found in the most unexpected places. In Europe the same system prevails. And so it appears that Messrs. Von Arthaber and Von Duschnitz represent a firm which is controlled by yet another firm. The head of this holding company is neither German nor Czech. He is a French citizen., M. Eugene Schneider, president of the Schneider-Creusot Company which for a century has dominated the French arms industry and which through its subsidiaries now controls most of the important arms factories in Central Europe. Some of Hitler’s financial support, then, was derived from a company owned by a leading French industrialist and arms maker.
Arms merchants also own newspapers and mold public opinion. M. Schneider is more than just the president of Creusot. He is the moving spirit of another great combine, the Comite des Forges. This French steel trust through one of its officers has controlling shares in the Paris newspaper Le Temps, the counterpart of The New York Times, and the Journal des Debats, which corresponds to the New York Herald Tribune. These two powerful papers constantly warn their readers of the “danger of disarmament” and of the menace of Germany. Thus M. Schneider is in a position to pull two strings, one linked to Hitler and German militarism, and the other tied to the French Press and French militarism.
Arms merchants have long carried on a profitable business arming the potential enemies of their own country. In England today in Bedford Park there is a canon captured by the British from the Germans during the World War. It bears a British trademark, for it was sold to Germany by a British firm before the war. English companies also sold mines to the Turks by which the British men-of-war were sunk in the Dardanelles during the war. The examples of this international trade in arms before the war are legion, as will be shown.
Nor are they lacking today. Recently the trial of the British engineers in Soviet Russia brought up the name of Vickers, the engineering firm which employed the accused. But Vickers has other lines than building dams for Bolsheviks. It is the largest armament trust in Great Britain. For years relations between the Soviets and Great Britain were such that the Soviets were convinced that Britain would lead the attack of the “capitalist powers” on Russia. Yet in 1930 Vickers sold 60 of its latest and most powerful tanks to the Soviets.
Today Russia is less of a problem to England than is Germany. The rise of Hitler has reawakened much of pre-war British suspicion of Germany. Germany was forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles to have a military force. Yet in 1933, at a time at a time when relations between the two countries were strained, the Germans placed an order with an English aircraft manufacturer for 60 of the most efficient fighting planes on the market, and the order would have been filled had not the British Air Ministry intervened and refused to permit the British manufacturer to supply the planes.
Arms makers engineer “war scares.” They excite governments and peoples to fear their neighbors and rivals, so that they may sell more armaments. This is an old practice worked often in Europe before the World War and still in use. Bribery is frequently closely associated with war scares. Both are well illustrated in the Seletzki scandal in Rumania. Bruno Seletzki (or Zelevski) was the Skoda agent in Rumania. In March, 1933, the Rumanian authorities discovered that this Czech firm had evaded taxes to the extent of 65 million lei. In searching Seletzki’s files, secret military documents were sealed and Seletzki’s affairs were to undergo a thorough “airing.”
A few days after the seals were found broken and many documents were missing. Seletzki was now held for trial and his files were carefully examined. The findings at that time pointed to widespread corruption of important government and army officials. Sums amounting to more than a billion lei had been distributed among the “right” officials, hundreds of thousands had been given to “charity” or spent on “entertainment,” because the persons receiving these sums “will be used by us some day.” The war scare of 1930 was revealed as a device to secure Rumanian armament orders, for Russia at that time was represented as ready to invade Bessarabia, and Rumania was pictured as helpless against this threat; all the hysteria vanished over night when Skoda was given large armament orders by the Rumanian government. General Popescu who was involved shot himself in his study and other officials were exceedingly nervous about the revelations which might yet come. It was never revealed who Seletzki’s friends in the Rumanian government had been.
All these incidents took place in times of peace. Presumably arms merchants become strictly patriotic once their countries start warlike operations. Not at all! During the World War at one time there were two trials going on in France. In one, Bolo Pasha was facing charges of trying to corrupt French newspapers in the interest of the Central Powers. He was convicted and executed. In the other, a group of French industrialists were tried for selling war materials to Germany through Switzerland. Although the facts were proved, these industrialists were released because they also supplied French armies.” – Portions from pages 1 – 6

From Dye Stuff Industrialists to Chemical Weapon Makers.

“Wherever there is a chemical or dye-stuff industry, the possibilities are given for rapid production of poison gases for war.
It is not surprising, then, that the great chemical factories of the world are to be found within the borders of the great powers. The largest companies or combines are I.G. Farben Industrie in Germany, the Imperial Chemical Industries in England, Kuklmann in France, DuPont de Nemours, the Allied Chemical and Dye Corporation (Dow Chemical) in the United States.
The Germans have always been leaders in the chemical industry. In the industrial reorganization which followed the war, the great chemical trust, I.G. Farben Industrie, was formed in 1925, with headquarters at Frankfurt and factories in a dozen places. The board of directors is made up of various nationalities, all leaders of the chemical industry in their several countries. The capital of the trust, as noted, is owned, to at least 75 per cent, by the French. The German chemical trust has close connections with other chemical companies in Spain, Italy, France, England, and even in the United States. I.G. Farben has evolved more than a thousand poison gases for use in the next war.
The French Etablissements Kuklmann owes its origin to the Germans. Right after the war with the German industrialists agreed to establish a chemical industry in France. In 1923, during the Ruhr invasion, negotiations were completed and in the next year German experts came to France to train French chemists in the use of German chemical patents. Naturally they were well paid. Kuklmann maintains close industrial relations with the German chemical trust and with the Spanish dynamite companies. Financially it is tied to Dillon, Read of New York, the Credit Suisse of Zurich ,and Mendelssohn of Berlin.
In England the Imperial Chemical Industries (I.C.I.) monopolizes the chemical industry. It, too, owes its real importance to German patents which it secured after the war. It is very closely tied to the government and frankly acknowledges its readiness for war. …
The United States boasts of a flourishing chemical industry which also owes its present status to German patents. A number of giants with many international ramifications are dominant, above all Du Pont de Nemours and the Allied Chemical and Dye Corporation….
Fifteen years have lapsed since the “war to end all wars.” Yet the arms industry has moved forward with growing momentum as if the pacific resolutions of the various peoples and governments had never existed. All these technical improvements, all the international mergers, the cooperation between government and the industry bear an uncomfortable resemblance to the situation during the epoch preceding 1914. Is this present situation necessarily a preparation for another world struggle and what, if any, are the solutions to these problems.” – Portions from pages 255 – 256.

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